Kadar Fenolat dan Flavonoid Total serta Kapasitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Etanol dan Fraksi Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum)

Dwi Koko Pratoko, Firdha Aprillia Wardhani, Nia Kristiningrum, Fifteen Aprila Fajrin, Dian Agung Pangaribowo

Abstract


Determination of total phenolic, total flavonoid, and antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract and fractions from red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) has been done. Red gingers contain the highest oleoresins among other ginger varieties. Oleoresins are component that had the most responsibility for pharmacological effect of red ginger, one of them is as antioxidant. Phenolic and flavonoid are highly contributing to the antioxidant effect of red ginger. The aim of this research is to determine the antioxidant capacity of extract and fractions of red ginger, and to investigate the correlation between antioxidant capacity with both total phenolic and total flavonoid. Ethanolic extracts are fractinationed with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and methanol solvent. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolic, and total flavonoid of all the samples are measured. Highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolic, and total flavonoid obtained from ethyl acetate fraction with TEAC 2143.9 ± 0.9 µmol/g (CUPRAC) and 4526.4 ± 3.0 (DPPH), GAE 229.9 ± 1.3 mg/g, and QE 46,6 ± 1,8 mg/g. One way ANOVA and post hoc analysis show significant result with p value <0,01. Pearson correlation shows high positive correlation. Determination of total phenolic, total flavonoid, antioxidant capacity from ethanolic extract and fractions of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) has been done.Red ginger contain the highest oleoresins among other ginger varieties. Oleoresins are component that had the most responsibility for pharmacological effect of red ginger, one of them is as antioxidant. Phenolic and flavonoid are highly contribute to the antioxidant effect of red ginger. The aim of this research is to determine the antioxidant capacity of extract and fractions of red ginger, and to investigate the correlation between antioxidant capacity with both total phenolic and total flavonoid. Ethanolic extracts are fractinationed with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and methanol solvent. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolic, and total flavonoid of all the samples are measured. Highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolic, and total flavonoid obtained from ethyl acetate fraction with TEAC 2143,893 ± 0,890 µmol/g, GAE 229,878 ± 1,330 mg/g, and QE 46,564 ± 1,804 mg/g. One way ANOVA and post hoc analysis show significant result with p value <0,01. Pearson correlation shows high positive correlation.


Keywords


Antioxidant capacity, red ginger, total flavonoid, total phenolic

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aljadi, A. M., & Kamarudin, M. Y. (2004). Evaluation of the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of two Malaysian floral honeys. Food Chemistry, 85(14), 513-518.

Andersen, O. V., & Marukam, K. R. (2006). Flavonoids : Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Application. Boca Ranton: Taylor & Francis Group.

Apak, R., Güçlü, K., Demirata, B., Özyürek, M., Çelik, S.E., & Bektaşoğlu, B. (2007). Comparative evaluation of various total antioxidant capacity assays applied to phenolic compounds with the CUPRAC assay. Molecules, 160, 1496-1547.

Baki, G. & Alexander, K. S., (2015). Introduction to Cosmetic Formulation and Technology. New Jersey: John Wiley Publisher.

Bhattarai, S., Van Tran H., & Duke, C.C., (2001). The stability of gingerol and shogaol in aqueous solutions. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 90(10), 1658–1664.

Boylan, F., S. Menezes, G. G. Leita, A. S. Reis, T. C. Santos, C. S. Coube, & S. G. Leitao. (2015). Screening of Brazilian plant extract for antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. Phytotherapy Research, 15, 127-130.

Bursal, E., Köksal, E., & Gülçin, I. (2012). In vitro Antioxidant Properties and Phenolic Content of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) Root. Department of Chemistry, 86–93.

Chavan, U. D. & Amarowiez, R. (2013). Effect of various solvent systems on extraction of phenolics , tannins and sugars from beach pea (Lathyrus maritimus L.). International Food Research Journal, 20(3), 1139–1144.

Chen, H. & L. Rui. (2010). Effect of soybean oligosaccharides on blood lipid, glucose levels, and antioxidant enzymes activity in high fat rats. Food Chemistry, 119(4), 1633-1636

Chrubasik, S., Pittler, M., & Roufogalis, B. (2005). Zingiberis rhizoma: a comprehensive review on the ginger effect and efficacy profiles. Phytomedicine, 684-701.

Das, N., M. E. Islam, N. Jahan, M. S. Islam, A. Khan, M. R. Islam, & M. S. Parvin. (2014). Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark and the involvement of phenolic compounds. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14(1), 1–9.

Esmaeli, K. A., Taha, R. M., Mohajer, S., & Banisalam, B. (2015). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavnoid content of various solvent extract of red clover. Biomed Res. International, 15, 1-11.

Fidrianny, I., Ayu, D., & Hartati, R. (2015). Antioxidant capacities, phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content of various polarities extracts from three organs of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 7(5), 914–920.

Ghasemzadah, A. & Ghasemzadah, N. (2011). Flavonoid and phenolic acid: role and biochemical activity in plants and human. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 5(31), 6697-6703.

Ghasemzadeh, A., Jafar, H. Z., & Rahmat, A. (2010). Synthesis of phenolic and flavonoids in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and their effect on photosynthesis rate. Molecular Science, 11, 4539-4555.

Guo, J., Wu, H., Du, L., Zhang, W., & Yang, J. (2014). Comparative antioxidant properties of some gingerols and shogaols, and the relationship of their contents with the antioxidant potencies of fresh and dried ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). J. Agr. Sci. Tech, 16, 1063-1072.

Heim, K. E., Tagliaferro, A. R., & Bobilya, A. D. (2002). Flavonoid antioxidants : chemistry, metabolism and structure-activity relationships. The Journal of Nutrional Biochemistry, 13, 572–584.

Herlina, R., Muhanarto, L., & Pribadi. (2002). Khasiat dan Manfaat Jahe Merah si Rimpang Ajaib. Jakarta Selatan: Agro Media Pustaka.

Jan, S., M. R. Khan, U. Rashid, & J. Bokhari. (2013). Assessment of antioxidant potential, total phenolics and flavonoids of different solvent fractions of Monotheca buxifoliaa fruit. Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives, 4(5), 246-254.

Kaban, A. N., Daniel & C. Saleh. (2016). Phtochemical, toxicity, and activity antioxidant fraction n-hexane and ethyl acetate extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Amarum). Jurnal Kimia Mulawarman, 14(1), 24–28.

Li, X., Wang, L., & Wang, Z. (2017). Structural characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from ginger. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 98(111), 59–66.

Li, Y., Hong, T., Han, Y., Wang, Y., & Xia, L. (2016). Chemical characterization and antioxidant activities comparison in fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 1011(16), 223–232.

Moreschi, S. R. M., Leal, C. J., Braga, M. E. M., & Meireles, M. A. A. (2006). Ginger and turmeric starches hydrolysis using subcritical water + CO2 : the effect of the SFE pre-treatment. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 23(2), 235–242.

Mošovská, S., D. Nováková, & M. Kaliňák. (2015). Antioxidant activity of ginger extract and identification of its active components. Acta Chimica Slovaca, 8(2), 115–119.

Nandan, S S., Telele, P. B., Sharma, K. S., & Dalvi, P. B. (2015). Isolation of starch from Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 3(6), 157–162.

Nitin, K. (2009). Longman Science Chemistry. Delhi: Pearson

Education.Oboh, G., Akinyemi, A. J., and Ademiluyi, A. O. (2012). Antioxidant and inhibitory effect of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) and white ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro. Pathology, 64(1-2), 31-36.

Peng, F., Tao, Q., Wu, X., Dou, H., Spencer, S., & Mang, C. (2012). Cytotoxic, cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of isolated phenolic compounds from fresh ginger. Elsevier Fitoterapia, 83(3), 568-585.

Phang, C., S. N. B. Malek, & H. Ibrahim. (2013). Antioxidant potential, cytotoxic activity and total phenolic content of Alpinia pahangensis rhizomes. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13(1), 1-9.

Preedy, V. A. (2012). Dietary Sugars. Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Rebaya, A., S. I. Belghith, B. Baghdikian, V. M. Leddet, F. Mabrouki, E. Olivier, J. K. Cherif, & M. T. Ayadi. (2015). Total phenolic, total flavonoid, tannin content, and antioxidant capacity of Halimium halimifolium (Cistaceae). Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 5(1), 052–057.

Septiana, A. T., Muchtadi, D., & Zakaria, F. R. (2002). Aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak dikloromethana dan air jahe pada asam linoleat. Seminar Nasional POKJANAS, 8(2), 1-3.

Sharif, M. F. & Bennett, M. T. (2016). The effect of different methods and solvents on the extraction of polyphenols in ginger (Zingiber officinale). Jurnal Teknologi, 78(11–2), 49–54.

Shimoda, H. (2006). Red Ginger Extract : All Natural Anti-arthritic & Anti-inflammatory Agent for Food & Cosmetics Applications. Tokyo: Oryza Oil & Fat Chemical Co., LTD.

Shirin, A. P. R. & Prakash, J. (2010). Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of ginger root. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 4(24) 2674-2679.

Siswandono, Soekardjo, B., & Purwanto.( 2000). Kimia Medisinal. Surabaya: Airlangga University Press.

Suciyanti, S. W., N. F. Kurniati, Sukrasno, & I. K. Adnyana. (2017). Antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate fraction and volatile oil from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe var. Sunti Val). The Second International Seminar and Expo on Jamu. 44: 1.

Supardan M. D., Fuad, A., Alam, P. N., & Arpi, N. (2011). Solvent extraction of ginger oleoresin using ultrasound. Makara Sains. 15(2), 163–167.

Thomas, G. (2007) Medicinal Chemistry. UK: John Wiley & Son, Ltd.

Wang, J., S. Hu, S. Nie, Q. Yu, & M. Xie. (2015). Reviews of mechanism of in vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharides. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longetivity, 16, 1-13.

Yeh, H. Y., Chuang, C. H., Chen, H. C., Wan, C. J., Chen, T. L., & $ Lin, L. Y. (2014). Bioactive components analysis of two various gingers (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and antioxidant effect of ginger extracts. Food Science and Technology Elsevier, 55(1), 329–334.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24252/al-kimia.v6i2.6316

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Al-Kimia has been indexed in :

See Google Scholar Profile for Al-Kimia by clicking here.

Mountain View     

More...

Supported By:

Creative Commons License All Publication by Al-Kimia are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Visitor Number: StatCounter - Free Web Tracker and Counter View Al-Kimia Stats

________________________________________________
Al-Kimia, p-ISSN : 2302-2736, e-ISSN : 2549-9335
Faculty of Science and Technology, Alauddin State Islamic University of Makassar, Indonesia
Jl.H.M.Yasin Limpo No. 36 Samata, Gowa, Sulawesi Selatan
Phone: +6281-355-514-523, Email: al-kimia@uin-alauddin.ac.id