THE USE OF CONJUNCTIONS IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPHS

Alfonsa Saskia Ardanellia, Truly Almendo Pasaribu

Abstract


Conjunctions connect words or phrases of semantic units to guide the writing and reading process. This study aimed at examining EFL learners’ use of conjunctions in writing descriptive texts. This study analyzed (1) the use of conjunctions in students’ descriptive texts and (2) the errors of using conjunctions. The study involved forty-four students’ descriptive texts which were analyzed using a qualitative descriptive method using Halliday and Hasan’s taxonomy (1976) as well as Ong’s framework (2011). We found 417 conjunctions which are classified into additive conjunctions (71.22%), the most common conjunctions used by the students, temporal conjunctions (13.43%), adversative conjunctions (11.99%), and causal conjunctions (3.36%).The predominance of additives denotes that the students added information in describing people. Although the students use these four types of conjunctions, some conjunctions are used inappropriately. We found the errors of conjunctions: misuse errors (42.55%), unnecessary addition errors (40.43%), omission errors (8.51%), and redundant repetition (8.51%). The study of discourse markers is relevant for designing writing materials for EFL students. Teachers can help students enhance their writing through various exposures of different discourse markers with their pragmatic functions.

ABSTRAK 

Konjungsi (kata sambung) menghubungkan kata atau frasa unit semantik untuk yang dapat memudahkan proses penulisan dan membaca. Konjungsi membantu pembaca mengaitkan satu ide ke ide berikutnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggali penggunaan konjungsi peserta didik Bahasa Inggris dalam menulis teks deskriptif. Penelitian ini menganalisis (1) penggunaan konjungsi dalam teks deskriptif yang ditulis oleh siswa SMA dan (2) kesalahan dalam penggunaan konjungsi. Penelitian ini melibatkan empat puluh empat teks deskriptif yang dianalisis menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif menggunakan taksonomi Halliday dan Hasan (1976) serta kerangka kerja Ong (2011). Peneliti menemukan 417 konjungsi yang diklasifikasikan menjadi konjungsi aditif (71,22%), konjungsi yang paling umum digunakan oleh siswa, konjungsi temporal (13,43%), konjungsi adversatif (11,99%), dan konjungsi kausal (3,36%). Konjungsi aditif menunjukkan bahwa siswa dapat menambahkan informasi tambahan ketika mendeskripsikan orang dalam bentuk paragraf. Meskipun siswa menggunakan keempat jenis konjungsi, beberapa konjungsi digunakan secara tidak tepat. Para peneliti menemukan kesalahan, yaitu: kesalahan penyalahgunaan (42,55%), kesalahan penambahan yang tidak perlu (40,43%), kesalahan kelalaian (8,51%), dan pengulangan yang berlebihan (8,51%). Penelitian tentang penanda wacana ini relevan untuk pembelajaran keterampilan menulis. Pendidik dapat membantu siswa menggunakan konjungsi yang beragam mereka dengan memberi banyak contoh penanda wacana serta fungsi pragmatis mereka.

Kata Kunci: Kata Sambung, Paragraf Deskriptif, Menulis, Analisis Kesalahan



Keywords


conjunctions; descriptive paragraph; writing; error analysis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bowen, G. A. 2009. Document analysis as a qualitative research method. Qualitative research journal, 9(2), 27-40.

Brown, H.D. 1980. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New Jersey:

Darweesh, A. D. & Kadhim, S. A. H. 2016. Iraqi EFL learners' problems in using conjunctions as cohesive devices. Journal of Education and Practice,7, 169-180.

Davis, C., Minihan, A., Small, W., & Yitbarek, F. 2007. A guide to tutoring non-native English speaking students. U.S Department Education: John Jay Print Shop.

Fauziah, E. M. 2016. An error analysis on the use of conjunction in students’ writing at English education department of Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta.

Feng, T. 2003. An investigation of cohesive errors in the writing of first-year NUS students from PRC. Unpublished master‘s thesis, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Hassan, H. R., & Halliday, M. 1976. Cohesion in English. London: Pearson Education Limited, 226-273.

Hasyim, S. 2004. Error analysis in the teaching of English. K@ ta lama, 4(1), 42-60.

Hyland, K. & Tse, P. 2004. Meta discourse in academic writing: a reappraisal. applied linguistics [Electronic version]. 25(2), 156–177.

Grammarist-English Grammar, Grammar Rules and Tips. 2019. “Definition of Therefore”. http://grammarist.com/grammar/therefore/. Accesed in March, 15th 2019.

Javed, M., Juan, W. X., & Nazli, S. 2013. A study of students' assessment in writing skills of the English language. International Journal of Instruction, 6, 129-144.

Li, F. E. N. G. 2010. Discourse markers in English writing. The Journal of International Social Research, 3, 299-305.

Nugraheni, R. 2016. Cohesive devices in learners’ writing.LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching,18, 51-62.

Ong, J. 2011. Investigating the use of cohesive devices by Chinese EFL learners.The Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 11, 42-65.

Pasaribu, T.A. 2016. Easy Essay Writing. Yogyakarta: USD Press

Pasaribu, T. A. 2017. Gender differences and the use of metadiscourse markers in writing essays.International Journal of Humanity Studies (IJHS),1, 93-102.

……………... 2017. Male and female students’ use of textual discourse markers in writing academic essays. Journal of Language and Literature, 17, 74-81.

Rahman, Y. A. 2018. Errors of conjunctions in Indonesian EFL learners' composition. Progressive, 12, 47-56.

Rusmawan, P. N. & Pasuruan, P. G. R. I. S. P. 2018. Teaching Writing Descriptive Text Activities In Islamic Boarding School. Journal Al-Makrifat, 3, 65-78.

Schriffin, D. 1987. Discourse markers. English Language Teaching, 7, 108-120.

Wang, J. & Zhang, Y. 2016. A corpus-based comparative analysis on the connectives used in Chinese and Swedish students’ essays. International Journal of Arts and Commerce, 5(9), 89-102.

Zhang, M. 1997. Cohesive features in the expository writing of undergraduates in two Chinese universities. RELC Journal, 31, 61-95.

Zhao, H. 2014. The textual function of discourse markers under the framework of relevance theory. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4, 2105-2113.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24252/elite.v6i2a5

Elite English and Literature Journal is indexed by

   

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN Print: 2355-0821 ISSN Online: 2580-5215

Jln. H. M. Yasin Limpo No. 36 Romangpolong, Samata, Kabupaten Gowa, Sulawesi Selatan
Email: elitejournal@uin-alauddin.ac.id