REDEMPTION OF THE MAIN CHARACTER IN THE NOVEL “THE KITE RUNNER” BY KHALED HOSSEINI (A GENETIC STRUCTURALISM APPROACH)

Sitti Aglitasia Merdekawati, Fachmi Alhadar, Nurfani Nurfani

Abstract


Abstract

This research aims at to identify actions that reflect redemption. In addition, the other objective in it is to identify the factors cause redemption of the main character. The novel "The Kite Runner" features themes such as friendships, father and son relationships, even political and social class issues, as well as redemption itself. The researcher uses qualitative and descriptive methods. While the approach used is the approach of genetic structuralism to comprehend literary works thoroughly, ranging from the story structure in literary itself to the totality of life of the character which is inseparable from the historical social relationship of the author. This research also can not be separated from the use of library research in the form of previous researches or from internet sources, as well as reading comprehension to support in completing the data. Based on the research, the researcher finds there are three points from the first sub-issue, namely: the sacrifice of the main character for his father, and also to make amends and sin to Hassan, Sohrab adoption is a form of action from the main character to pay for his mistakes, And the struggle for his fear of returning to Kabul even championed Sohrab from the Talibans and also fight to stay alive so that they can return to America. While the second sub-problem has four points, including: the death of his mother Amir and also Hassan and his tragic family where such conditions depict Afghanistan in the inflation of Soviet troops and other communist parties. The sexual violence experienced by Hassan and Sohrab is reflected in the traditions and cultures that exist in Afghanistan in using the boys for their sexual needs. The betrayal of the main character, and the loyalty of Hassan, both of which also exist in the writer's circle as Hosseini also had a faithful Hazara whom he taught to write but the Hosseini’s family had to go abroad after the inflation and war. Hosseini finally went to America and left friends and other family in Kabul.

Abstrak

Skripsi ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi aksi-aksi yang mencerminkan sebuah penebusan dosa. Selain itu, tujuan lainnya dalam penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor penyebab penebusan dosa dari karakter utama. Novel “The Kite Runner” menampilkan berbagai tema seperti persahabatan, hubungan ayah dan anak, bahkan isu-isu politik dan kelas sosial, dan juga redemption itu sendiri. Peneliti menggunakan metode kualitatif dan deskriptif analisis. Sedangkan pendekatan yang digunakan adalah pendekatan strukturalisme genetik untuk memahami karya sastra secara menyeluruh, mulai dari struktur cerita dalam karya sastra itu sendiri hingga totalitas kehidupan dari karakter yang mana tidak terlepas dari hubungan sosial historis pengarangnya. Penelitian ini juga tidak terlepas dari penggunaan penelitian pustaka berupa penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya maupun dari sumber internet, serta pemahaman membaca untuk mendukung dalam melengkapi data tersebut. Berdasarkan penelitian ini, penulis menemukan ada tiga poin dari submasalah yang pertama, yaitu: pengorbanan dari the main character untuk ayahnya, dan juga untuk menebus kesalahan dan dosanya pada Hassan, adopsi pada Sohrab adalah bentuk tindakan dari the main character untuk membayar kesalahannya, dan perjuangan untuk melalui ketakutannya kembali ke Kabul bahkan memperjuangkan Sohrab dari para Taliban dan juga berjuang untuk tetap hidup agar mereka bisa kembali ke Amerika. Sedangkan submasalah yang kedua memiliki empat poin, diantaranya: kematian dari ibunya Amir dan juga Hassan dan keluarganya yang tragis dimana kondisi seperti itu menggambarkan Afghanistan dalam inflasi tentara Soviet dan partai komunis lainnya. Kekerasan seksual yang dialami oleh Hassan dan Sohrab yang mana hal tersebut tercermin dari tradisi dan budaya yang ada di Afghanistan sendiri dalam menggunakan anak-anak untuk kebutuhan seksual mereka. Pengkhianatan dari karakter utama, dan kesetiaan dari Hassan yang mana kedua hal tersebut juga ada di lingkungan penulis sebagaimana Hosseini juga memiliki seorang Hazara yang setia yang diajarkannya menulis namun keluarga Hosseini harus pergi ke luar negeri setelah terjadi inflasi dan perang. Hosseini akhirnya pergi ke Amerika dan meninggalkan teman-teman dan keluarga lainnya di Kabul.


Keywords


Redemption; the Main Character; the Kite Runner

Full Text:

PDF

References


A, Teeuw. 1984. Sastra dan Ilmu Sastra: Pengantar Teori Sastra. Jakarta : Dunia Pustaka Jaya.

Adi, Ida Rochani. 2011. Fiksi Populer: Teori dan Metode Kajian. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Baron, Marcia. 1984. The Moral Status of Loyalty. CSEP Module Series in Applied Ethics. Iowa : Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Available online http://ethics.iit.edu/publication/Moral_status_loyalty_Baron.pdf.

Broughton (Scissors, 2005), 25. (Understanding Reading Comprehension).

Bungin, Burhan. 2007. Penelitian Kualitatif. Jakarta: Kencana.

Faruk. 1994. Pengantar Sosiologi Sastra. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Goldmann, Lucien. 1970. The Sociology of Art and Literature, “the Sociology of Literature: Status and Problems of Method”, in Milton C. Albercht cs. (ed.), New York: Praeger Publisher.

Hadi, Al-Islam, 22. 2015. Script. (writing: technique of collecting data).

Heidegger, Martin. 1927. Being And Time, A Translation of Sein und Zeit. (Translated by: Joan Stambaugh). New York: State University of New York Press. PDF.

Hosseini, Khaled. 2003. The Kite Runner. New York: Riverhead Books.

_______. 2006. The Kite Runner. (Translated by: Berliani M. Nugrahani). Bandung: Penerbit Qanita.

Jackson, Rodger L. 2000. The Sense and Sensibility of Betrayal: Discovering the Meaning of Treachery through Jane Austen. (PDF). Humanitas. National Humanities Institute. Vol.XIII, No.2. 72-89. New Jersey.

Nila, Shafa Firda. 2013. Script: Teknik Penerjemahan Metafora, Simile, Dan Personifikasi Dalam Novel “The Kite Runner” Dan Dampaknya Terhadap Kualitas Terjemahan. Accessed on November 10th, 2016, 9:36 AM.

Patilima, Hamid. 2007. Metode Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Perrine, Laurence. 1974. Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense. New York: Hartcourt College Publishers.

Poejanegri, Amanda Syahkti. 2015. Script: Discrimination in the novel “The Kite Runner” by Khaled Hosseini. Ternate: Khairun University.

Pradopo, Rachmat Djoko. 1994. Prinsip-prinsip Kritik Sastra. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

_______. 1995. Beberapa Teori Sastra, Metode Kritik, dan Penerapannya. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Ratna, Nyoman Kutha. 2004. Teori, Metode, Teknik Penelitian Sastra. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Royce, Josiah. 1908. The Philosophy of Loyalty. New York: The Macmillan Company. Accessed on March 19th, 2017, 5.11 p.m.

The National Commission on Women (2014). (Accessed: April 2nd 2017). Retrieved March 30th, 2017.

Saraswat, Niraja. 2014. Theme of Identity and Redemption in Khaled Hosseini’s The Kite Runner. International Journal of Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Studies (IJIMS). Vol.1. No.5, pg. 166-175. India.

Available online at http://www.ijims.com. Retrieved January 13rd, 2017, 12.13 p.m.

Stanton, Robert. 2007. Teori Fiksi. (Translated by: Sugihastuti and Rossi Abi Al Irsyad). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar Offset.

Sugiyono. 2008. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif dan R&D. Bandung: CV. Alfabeta. PDF.

Willey, John. 2004. Introduction of The Kite Runner. New York: John Willey & Sons. Inc. Retrieved December 6th, 2016, 12:16 PM.

Online Sources:

Amalia, 16. 2012. Karakter. Accessed on February 13th, 2017.

Burke, Kenneth, 9. The Concept of Guilt-Purification-Redemption. (Accessed: January 3rd , 2017)

Hawton, 16. 2001. Definition of Character. Accessed on February 13th, 2017.

Konvitz, Milton R. 1973. "Loyalty". In Philip P. Wiener. Encyclopedia of the History of Ideas. III. New York: Scribner's. p. 108. Available online: https://readtiger.com/wkp/en/Loyalty.html. Accessed on March 3rd, 2017, 15.12 p.m.

Kuypers, 9. Guilty. Online: http://download.portalgaruda.org/article.php.

Ladd, John. 1967. “Loyalty,” in Paul Edwards (ed), The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Macmillan & The Free Press, Vol. V, pp. 97–98. Available online https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/loyalty . Accessed on March 2nd, 2017.

Lewis, Michael, Jones, 9. 2008. Hanbook of Emotion – the guilty feelings. Accessed on December 24th, 2016.

Matlin, 12. 2008. (Sexual violence). Available online: http://www.scribd.com/document/Chapter-II-Kekerasan-anak.

McMillan, 21. 2003. Qualitative Method. Accessed on December 22th, 2016.

Reddy, DT. 2013. The enigma of Evolution, Suffering and Redemption according to John F. Haught. Braga. Retrieved: January 2nd, 2017.

Safardi, Ilyaz A., 11. 2014. Blog: Kematian Manusia Menurut Martin Heidegger. Accessed on January 8th, 2017.

Sievers, Burkard. 2009. ‘It is New, and It has to be Done!’: Socio-Analytic Thoughts on Betrayal and Cynicism in Organizational Transformation. Pfaffenberger, Germany: Culture & Organization 13(1),1-27. Vol.25. Retrieved March 2nd, 2017, 7:08 p.m.

Utamadi, Guntoro & Paramitha, 13. 2001. Kekerasan Seksual. Accessed: July 10th, 2017.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24552/elite.v4i02.4253

ELITE is indexed by:


 Hasil gambar untuk google scholar Hasil gambar untuk moraref

Hasil gambar untuk crossref



ELITE : English and Literature Journal, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Alauddin State Islamic University of Makassar, Paper ISSN: 2355-0821, Online ISSN: 2580-5215

Jl.H.M.Yasin Limpo No. 36 Samata, Gowa, Sulawesi Selatan
Phone : +6285-255-941-210, +6281-343-846-565
Email : nasrum.marjuni@uin-alauddin.ac.id