Mengukur Dampak Pengangguran, Tingkat Pendidikan, Upah Minimum, dan Pengeluaran Per Kapita terhadap Kemiskinan di Kota Makassar

Eka Nurcitra Ayu Ningtias, Andi Faisal Anwar

Abstract


This study aims to see whether there is an effect of unemployment, education level, minimum wage, and capita expenditure on poverty in Makassar City. This research is a type of quantitative research. The data used are secondary data with the type of annual time series data in the 2008-2018 (10 years) period obtained from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS). The data analysis technique used in this study is multiple regression analysis using SPSS version 21, this model shows how much influence occurs between the independent variables on the dependent variable. The results of this study indicate that the unemployment variable, the education level, the minimum wage, and the per capita expenditure have a positive and significant effect on poverty in Makassar City. The implication of this research requires efforts from various parties to improve the performance of education in increasing the standard of living of the community, especially for the poor. Especially the government must improve and optimize access to education for the vulnerable to the poor. In addition, a better minimum wage increase, and comprehensive collaboration among stakeholders for poverty alleviation.

Keywords: Unemployment, Education Level, Minimum Wage, Poverty

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah terdapat pengaruh pengangguran, tingkat pendidikan, upah minimum, dan pengeluaran per kapita terhadap kemiskinan di Kota Makassar. Penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian kuantitatif. Adapun data yang digunakan yaitu data sekunder dengan jenis data deret waktu tahunan dalam periode 2008-2018 (10 tahun) yang diperoleh dari Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). Teknik analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis regresi berganda dengan menggunakan SPSS versi 21, dari model ini menunjukkan berapa besar pengaruh yang terjadi antara variabel independen terhadap variabel dependen. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa variabel pengangguran, tingkat pendidikan, upah minimum, dan pengeluaran per kapita berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap kemiskinan di Kota Makassar. Implikasi dari penelitian ini yakni diperlukan upaya dari berbagai pihak untuk meningkatkan performa pendidikan dalam meningkatkan taraf hidup masyarakat, terutama bagi golongan miskin. Terkhusus pemerintah harus meningkatkan dan mengoptimalkan akses pendidkan sampai ke kaum rentan miskin. Selain itu peningkatan upah minimum yang lebih baik, dan kolaborasi yang menyeluruh antar stakeholder untuk pengentasan kemiskinan.

Kata kunci: Pengangguran, Tingkat Pendidikan, Upah Minimum, Kemiskinan


References


Aisyah, S., & Business, I. (2020). Tracing the Labor Absorption Rate in the Medium and Large Industrial Sectors EcceS : Economics Social and Development Studies. 7(2), 220–239.

Aiyedogbon, J. O. (2012). Poverty and youth Unemployment in Nigeria , 1987-2011. 3(20), 269–279.

Alkire, S. (2007). Choosing Dimensions: The Capability Approach and Multidimensional Poverty. 89–90.

Amal, B. K. (2018). The Exploring of Marxism Regarding The Poverty Sustainability in Kampung Nelayan Seberang, Belawan, Indonesia. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute (BIRCI-Journal) : Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(2), 79–92. https://doi.org/10.33258/birci.v1i2.15

Anwar, A. F., & Aswandi, K. (2019). Silang Sengkarut Pembangunan Berkel

anjutan Perkotaan Dalam Pusaran Kapital (Studi Kasus: Megaproyek Reklamasi CPI Makassar). EcceS (Economics, Social, and Development Studies), 6(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.24252/ecc.v6i1.9540

Arango, L. E., & Flórez, L. A. (2020). Regional Labour Informality in Colombia and a Proposal for a Differential Minimum Wage. Journal of Development Studies, 00(00), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220388.2020.1841170

Aspromourgos, T. (2019). The Past and Future of Keynesian Economics: A Correction. History of Economics Review, 74(1), 81–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/10370196.2020.1732021

Averett, S. L., Smith, J. K., & Wang, Y. (2020). Minimum wages and the health of immigrants’ children. Applied Economics Letters, 00(00), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504851.2020.1784832

Bardhan, P., & Roemer, J. E. (1994). On the Workability of Market Socialism. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8(2), 177–181.https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.8.2.177

Benfica, R., & Henderson, H. (2020). The Effect of the Sectoral Composition of Economic Growth on Rural and Urban Poverty. Review of Income and Wealth, (0). https://doi.org/10.1111/roiw.12462

Bradford, S. (2020). A global model of migration and poverty. World Economy, (September), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1111/twec.13051

Braun, H., Döhrn, R., Krause, M., Micheli, M., & Schmidt, T. (2020). Macroeconomic long-run effects of the German minimum wage when labor markets are frictional. Jahrbucher Fur Nationalokonomie Und Statistik, 240(2–3), 351–386. https://doi.org/10.1515/jbnst-2018-0080

Dütsch, M., & Himmelreicher, R. (2020). Characteristics Contributing to Low- And Minimum-Wage Labour in Germany. Jahrbucher Fur Nationalokonomie Und Statistik, 240(2–3), 161–200. https://doi.org/10.1515/jbnst-2018-0076

Ehret, M. (2014). Financial socialism: The role of financial economics in economic disorganization. Journal of Business Research, 67(1), 2686–2692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.03.017

Evensky, J. (1993). Retrospectives: Ethics and the Invisible Hand. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7(2), 197–205. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.7.2.197

Festré, A. (2019). Michael Polanyi ’ Vision of Economics : Spanning Hayek and Keynes.

Gare, A. (2020). The Eco-socialist Roots of Ecological Civilisation. Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, 0(0), 1–19.

https://doi.org/10.1080/10455752.2020.1751223

Ginting, A. L. (2019). Interelasi Pengeluaran Pemerintah dan Kesempatan Kerja Terhadap Pertumbuhan Ekonomi dan Kemiskinan di Provinsi Kalimantan Tengah. EcceS (Economics, Social, and Development Studies), 6(2), 230. https://doi.org/10.24252/ecc.v6i2.10957

Greenhill, A., & Wilson, M. (2006). Haven or hell? Telework, flexibility and family in the e-society: A Marxist analysis. European Journal of Information Systems, 15(4), 379–388. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.ejis.3000632

Heise, A. (2020). Minimum wages and the resilience of neoclassical labour market economics. Some preliminary evidence from Germany. Retrieved from https://rwer.wordpress.com/comments-on-rwer-issue-no-93/

Heitzmann, K., & Matzinger, S. (2020). The (changing) consideration of social investment in the design of welfare benefits: The case of poverty relief in Austria. Social Policy and Administration, (May), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1111/spol.12643

Kaufman, B. E. (2010). Institutional Economics and the Minimum Wage: Broadening the Theoretical and Policy Debate. ILR Review, 63(3), 427–453. https://doi.org/10.1177/001979391006300304

Kaufman, B. E. (2020). Richard Lester’s Institutional‐Industrial Relations Model of Labor Markets and the Near‐Zero Minimum Wage Employment Effect: The Model Card and Krueger Ignored but Shouldn’t Have. Journal of Economic Issues, 54(4), 1002–1032.

https://doi.org/10.1080/00213624.2020.1818514

Amalia, F. (2012). Pengaruh Pendidikan, Pengangguran Dan Inflasi Terhadap Tingkat Kemiskinan Di Kawasan Timur Indonesia (Kti) Periode 2001-2010 Fitri Amalia*. X, 158–169.

Kumah, C., Hilson, G., & Quaicoe, I. (2020). Poverty, adaptation and vulnerability: An assessment of women’s work in Ghana’s artisanal gold mining sector. Area, 52(3), 617–625. https://doi.org/10.1111/area.12639

Marjit, S., Ganguly, S., & Acharyya, R. (2020). Minimum wage, trade and unemployment in general equilibrium. International Journal of Economic Theory, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijet.12264

McWilliam, A. R., Wianti, N. I., & Taufik, Y. (2021). Poverty and prosperity among Sama Bajo fishing communities (Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia). Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 42(1), 132–148. https://doi.org/10.1111/sjtg.12349

Modulates, P., & Behaviour, S. (2015). This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Cognitive Psychology, available online: (January), 1–26.

Oner, E. (2015). Comparative Interpretation of Classical and Keynesian Fiscal Policies (Assumptions, Principles and Primary Opinions). International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies (2147-4486), 4(2), 11–20. https://doi.org/10.20525/ijfbs.v4i2.213

Panda, S., & Padhi, B. (2020). Poverty and inequality in Odisha, India. Journal of Public Affairs, (January), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.2220

Refaeli, T., & Achdut, N. (2020). Perceived poverty, perceived income adequacy and loneliness in Israeli young adults: Are social capital and neighbourhood capital resilience factors? Health and Social Care in the Community, (July), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13177

Rioux, S., LeBaron, G., & Verovšek, P. J. (2020). Capitalism and unfree labor: a review of Marxist perspectives on modern slavery. Review of International Political Economy, 27(3), 709–731.

https://doi.org/10.1080/09692290.2019.1650094

Sabia, J. J., Pitts, M. M., & Argys, L. M. (2019). Are Minimum Wages a Silent Killer? New Evidence on Drunk Driving Fatalities. Review of Economics and Statistics, 101(1), 192–199. https://doi.org/10.1162/rest_a_00761

Sharaunga, S., & Mudhara, M. (2021). Analysis of Livelihood Strategies for Reducing Poverty Among Rural Women’s Households: A Case Study of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of International Development, 33(1), 127–150. https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.3516

Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. W. (1994). The Politics of Market Socialism. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8(2), 165–176.

https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.8.2.165

Singerman, D. R. (2016). Keynesian eugenics and the goodness of the world. Journal of British Studies, 55(3), 538–565.

https://doi.org/10.1017/jbr.2016.56

Soundararajan, V. (2019). Heterogeneous effects of imperfectly enforced minimum wages in low-wage labor markets. Journal of Development Economics, 140(June), 355–374.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2019.06.010

Stevans, L. K., & Sessions, D. N. (2001). Minimum Wage Policy and Poverty in the United States. International Review of Applied Economics, 15(1), 65–75. https://doi.org/10.1080/02692170120013358

Tuyen, T. Q. (2015). Socio-Economic Determinants of Household Income among Ethnic Minorities in the North-West Mountains , Vietnam. 17(1), 139–159. https://doi.org/10.15179/ces.17.1.5

Üşenmez, Ö. (2017). Turkey: In the Midst of Crisis, Between Liberal Utopia and Keynesian Regulation. Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi, 5(2), 245–262. https://doi.org/10.14782/sbd.2017.74

Wang, S., & Yang, D. (2020). The effects of poverty stereotype threat on inhibition ability in individuals from different income-level families. Brain and Behavior, 10(12), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1770

Wietzke, F. B. (2020). Poverty, Inequality, and Fertility: The Contribution of Demographic Change to Global Poverty Reduction. Population and Development Review, 46(1), 65–99. https://doi.org/10.1111/padr.12317

Wiguna, A. B., Ekonomi, J. I., Malang, K., & Minimum, U. (2019). Penyerapan Tenaga Kerja Industri Provinsi Jawa Timur : Apakah Upah Minimum Masih Menjadi Faktor Penentu ? Jurnal EcceS Abstrak : Penyerapan Tenaga Kerja Industri Provinsi Jawa Abstract : Industrial Employment in East Java Province : Does Minimum Wage Still Considered as The First. 6, 214–229.

Workneh, M. A. (2020). Gender Inequality, Governance, and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty and Public Policy, 12(2), 150–174. https://doi.org/10.1002/pop4.278


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Bulletin of Economic Studies (BEST) Indexed by:

------------------------------------------------------------------


Office Address:

Jl. H.M. Yasin Limpo No. 36 Romangpolong, Samata, Kabupaten Gowa, Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia.

Publisher:

Department of Economics, Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin Makassar, Indonesia

Primary Journal Email : best@uin-alauddin.ac.id

Support Email: wardihan.sabar@uin-alauddin.ac.id

ISSN Online :