Muhammad Rizky Nur Kamrullah, Aspin Nur Arifin Rivai


This research aims to further explore the civil war that is taking place in Syria. This paper questions fundamentally, why did the civil war in Syria become a prolonged armed conflict? Or are there other factors that strengthen the strength of their resistance? This research offers a novelty of research on the situation of this conflict, is that the prolonged civil war in Syria is not only caused by internal conditions, but also the involvement of external actors. As with the approach of David E. Cunningham (2010) that the involvement of external actors in civil war produces two possibilities, namely; become a negotiating facilitator and help one party win. This research reveals that the involvement of external actors interventions - regional, international and transnational – actually prolongs the conflict. This is because the involvement of external actors causes the addition of combatants in the conflict, so the preference in the conflict increases.


Keywords: Civil War, Assad Regime, Regional Actor, International Actor, and Transnational Actor.

Full Text:



Aljazeera. (2015, August 18). Almost quarter of a million people' dead in Syria war. Retrieved March 18, 2017, from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/08/quarter-million-people-dead-syria-war-150807093941704.html

Alsharif, A. (2012, June 23). Saudi Arabia and Qatar funding Syrian rebels. Retrieved April 2, 2017, from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-syria-crisis-saudi/saudi-arabia-and-qatar-funding-syrian-rebels-idUSBRE85M07820120623

Amnesty International. (2016, February 3). Syria's refugee crisis in numbers. Retrieved April 4, 2017, from https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2016/02/syrias-refugee-crisis-in-numbers/

Bagdonas, A. (2012). Interest in Syrian Conflict: Power, Prestige, and Profit Power, Prestige, and Proft. European Journal of Economic and Political Studies , 55-77.

Barfi, B. (2016, January 24). The Real Reason Why Iran Backs Syria. Retrieved April 2, 2017, from : https://nationalinterest.org/feature/the-real-reason-why-iran-backs-syria-14999

Barmin, Y. (n.d.). A Short History of Syria’s Brutal First Family. Retrieved December 16, 2016, from https://mic.com/articles/62771/a-short-history-of-syria-s-brutal-first-family#.TgA5p6x20

Basma, A., & Strohecker, K. (2015, November 15). Saudi Arabia to continue support Syrian rebels if Assad does not leave. Retrieved 3 April, 2017, from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-saudi/saudi-arabia-to-continue-support-syrian-rebels-if-assad-does-not-leave-idUSKCN0T31A320151114

Bassam, L., & Perry, T. (2015, November 7). Saudi Arabia's 'intensified' support to Syrian rebels is reportedly slowing regime advances. Retrieved April 3, 2017, from https://www.businessinsider.com/saudi-arabias-intensified-support-to-syrian-rebels-is-reportedly-slowing-regime-advances-2015-11?IR=T

Cafarella, J., Heras, N. A., & Casagrande, G. (2016, September 1). Al Qaeda Is Gaining Strength in Syria. Retrieved April 19, 2017, from https://foreignpolicy.com/2016/09/01/al-qaeda-is-gaining-strength-in-syria/


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Review of International Relations Is Indexed by:


Creative Commons License

Review of International Relations by Prodi Hubungan Internasional is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License


View My Stats



Departement of International Relation Ushuluddin and Philosophy Alauddin State Islamic University of Makassar.
H.M.Yasin Limpo, Samata, Gowa. Email : hub.intl@uin-alauddin.ac.id

ISSN (print) : 2685-5879

ISSN (online) : 2685-421X