In addressing all facets of "publication ethics" and, in particular, how to manage situations of research and publishing misconduct, this journal adheres to guidelines from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Moreover, this journal emphasizes the importance of adhering to standards of research ethics outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki. This pertains to all publications involving either human or animal subjects. To raise the standard of research around the world, publication ethics must be addressed as a crucial issue and discussed in detail. The standard for editors, authors, and reviewers is described in this section. Publishers also have no right to compromise the integrity of the contents and merely promote timely publication.
An editor at any time can assess manuscript for the intellectual value without regard to the writers' race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, citizenship, or political philosophies.
The corresponding author, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, where applicable, are the only people who should know anything about a manuscript that has been submitted.
Interest Conflicts and Disclosure
Unpublished information disclosed in a submitted manuscript may not be used by the editor for independent research projects without the author's written approval.
The editorial board decides which of the articles submitted to the magazine shall be published. The decisions are primarily guided by the validity of the work in question and its significance to scholars and readers. To ensure a fair and ethical process, the editors follow specific guidelines set by the board and adhere to relevant laws concerning libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. In making this choice, the editors may consult with additional editors or reviewers.
Review of Manuscript
Each submitted work must be initially assessed by the editor to confirm its originality through an in-depth peer review. In the information for authors, editors should outline their peer review procedures and specify which sections of the publication are peer-reviewed. For manuscript that is being considered for publication, the editor should use acceptable peer reviewers by selecting individuals with sufficient knowledge and avoiding those who have conflicts of interest.
Contribution to Editorial Decisions
Peer review assists the editor to make decisions about content, and editorial interactions with the author may assist in improving the article.
Any selected referee who believes they are ill-equipped to evaluate the research presented in the manuscript or will be unable to complete the review promptly should inform the editor and withdraw from the process.
Any manuscripts sent for review should be handled with confidentiality, and cannot be discussed or shown to anybody without the editor's permission.
Criteria for Objectivity
Reviews must be carried out impartially and it is inappropriate to criticize the author personally. Referees should clearly state their positions and provide evidence to back them up.
Reviewers should point out pertinent published works that the authors have not cited. Any claim that a certain observation, deduction, or argument has already been recorded should be supported by the appropriate citation. Any significant overlap or resemblance between the manuscript under consideration and any other published material of which the reviewer has firsthand knowledge should be brought to the editors’ attention.
Interest Conflict and Disclosure
Peer reviews’ privileged knowledge or ideas must be kept secret and not used for personal benefit. To maintain impartiality, reviewers should not consider manuscript for which they have relationships, links, or conflicts of interest with any of the authors, organizations, or businesses associated with the submissions. This includes competitive, cooperative, or any other relationships or connections that could influence their judgment or compromise the integrity of the review process.
Authors of reports on original research ought to give a truthful summary of the work done and an unbiased analysis of its relevance. The manuscript should appropriately depict the underlying data. A manuscript should have enough information and citations to allow another individual to duplicate the work. False or deliberately inaccurate statements are inappropriate and represent unethical behavior.
Plagiarism and Originality
The authors should make sure that their writing is wholly unique and appropriately acknowledge any sources they have referenced or quoted. If there are concerns about data falsification or fabrication, the author(s) should provide the editor with the information and specifics of the work.
Concurrent, Multiple, or Redundant Publication
Generally, an author should not submit articles detailing essentially the same research to more than one journal or primary publication. It is unacceptable to simultaneously submit the same manuscript to multiple journals, which is considered unethical publishing practice.
Always give due credit to other people's contributions and citations for works that had a significant impact on understanding the nature of the reported work.
Authorship of the Manuscript
Only individuals who significantly contributed to the conception, design, implementation, or interpretation of the reported research should be given the privilege of authorship. Co-authors should be named for everyone who contributed significantly. When additional people contributed to the research in a meaningful way, they should be thanked or identified as contributors. The corresponding author is responsible for making sure the work has all suitable co-authors, and that all co-authors have read the final version of the manuscript, approved it, and agreed to its submission for publication.
Human or Animal Subjects
When conducting research involving human subjects, authors must ensure that their procedures comply with guidelines established by international and national committees overseeing human experimentation as well as the ethical principles of the Helsinki Declaration. If there are any concerns about whether the research was conducted in line with the declaration, the authors must address these concerns. In the case of animal experimentation, the authors must ensure that they comply with all applicable domestic and international laws as well as regulations.
Interest Conflicts and Disclosure
Any financial or other significant conflict of interest that could influence the findings or interpretation of a manuscript should be disclosed by all authors in the publication. Additionally, disclosure of all funding sources for the project is required.
Basic Mistakes in Published Works
It is the responsibility of the author to contact the publishers or journal editors as soon as a serious error or inaccuracy in the published work is found and to work with the editors to retract or fix the manuscript.