Formulation and Antibacterial Activity of Citrus limon Peel Essential Oil and Eucalyptus globulus Essential Oil Combination as Gel Hand Sanitizer with The Simplex Lattice Design Method

  • Muhammad Fariez Kurniawan Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
    (ID)
  • Rika Dwiaprinia Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

Abstract

 

         Citrus limon peel essential oil (CLEO) and Eucalyptus globulus essential oil (EGEO) contain active compound limonene (CLEO) and 1,8-cineole (EGEO) which can act as an antibacterial agent. This study was conducted to determine the physical properties and the inhibition zone of combination formulas of CLEO and EGEO as hand sanitizer gel against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The results of physical properties and antibacterial power obtained were tested by Simplex Lattice Design (SLD) method to formulate an optimal formula. The results of the physical properties showed that the formulas were in gel form, white ivory, the scent of F1 smell CLEO, the scent of F2 smell EGEO, and the scent of F3 smell the combination of CLEO and EGEO, visually homogeneous but under the microscope magnification 40x and 100x, it showed coarse grains, the values of pH were 5.07, 5.14, and 5.01, the values of spreadability were 5.81 cm, 6.12 cm, and 5.54 cm, the values of adhesion were 7.3 minutes, and 6.9 minutes, and 8.1 minutes, and the values of the viscosity were 171 dPa.s, 170 dPa.s, and 171.3 dPa.s. Antibacterial power tested by disc paper method, the results of antibacterial activity showed that the formula tested, showed that F1 100% CLEO, F2 100% EGEO, and F3 50% CLEO: 50% EGEO had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The inhibition zones of each formula in a row were: inhibition zones of F1 were 9.77 mm, 11.22 mm, and 11.77 mm, inhibition zones of F2 were 10.55 mm, 12.77, and 11.88 mm, and inhibition zones of F3 were 11.66 mm, 11.55 mm, and 10.55 mm. Based on the SLD, the optimal formula of hand sanitizer gel was 20% Citrus limon essential oil and 80% Eucalyptus globulus essential oil, with the pH value was 5.50 and adhesion value was 7.20 minutes, the zones of inhibition against S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa were 19.99 mm, 12.22 mm, and 11.44 mm

References

Allen, L. V. (2002). The Art, Science, and Technology of Pharmaceutical Compounding. Washington, USA: American Pharmaceutical Association. 2, 301-310.

Asngad, A., & Nopitasari, N. (2018). Kualitas Gel Pembersih Tangan (Hand Sanitizer) dari Ekstrak Batang Pisang dengan Penambahan Alkohol, Triklosan, dan Gliserin yang Berbeda Dosisnya. Bioeksperimen: Jurnal Penelitian Biologi, 4(2), 61-70.

Astiani, D. P., Jayuska, A., & Arreneuz, S. (2014). Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Minyak Atsiri Eucalyptus pellita terhadap Bakteri Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus. Jurnal Kimia Khatulistiwa, 3(3), 49-53.

Bolton, S., & Bon, C. (2009). Pharmaceutical Statistics: Practical and Clinical Applications. CRC press. 523-531.

Borgou, S., Rahali, F.Z., Ourghemmi, I., & Tounsi, M.S. (2012), Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation, The Scientific World Journal, 10(1), 1-10.

Cahyani, I. M., & Khoeriyah, M. (2018). Efektivitas Antibakteri Minyak Atsiri Daun Eukaliptus (Eucalyptus globulus) Dalam Sediaan Krim Sebagai Antibakteri Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. Jurnal Ilmu Farmasi dan Farmasi Klinik, 14(2), 20-24.

Candrasari, A., Romas, M. A., & Astuti, O. R. (2011). Uji Daya Antimikroba Ekstrak Etanol Daun Sirih Merah (Piper Crocatum Ruiz & Pav.) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Eschericia coli ATCC 11229 dan Candida albicans ATCC 10231 Secara In Vitro. Biomedika, 4(1), 9-16.

Friatna, E. R., Rizqi, A., & Hidayah, T. (2011). Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Pada Kulit Jeruk Manis (Citrus sinensis) Sebagai Alternatif Bahan Pembuatan Masker Wajah. Pelita-Jurnal Penelitian Mahasiswa UNY, 6(2), 1-10.

Hartin, E., & Rini, C. S. (2019). Efektivitas Jeruk Lemon (Citrus limon Linn) terhadap Staphylococcus epidermidis. Medicra (Journal of Medical Laboratory Science/Technology), 2(1), 6-9.

Hastuty, H. S. B., Purba, P. N., & Nurfadillah, E. (2018). Uji Stabilitas Fisik Formulasi Sediaan Gel Ekstrak Daun Ketepeng Cina (Cassia alata L.) Dengan Gelling Agent Cmc-Na Terhadap Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 230840. Gema Kesehatan, 10(1), 22-27.

Hudaya, A., Radiastuti, N., Sukandar, D., & Djajanegara, I. (2014). Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Air Bunga Kecombrang Terhadap Bakteri E. Coli dan S. aureus Sebagai Bahan Pangan Fungsional. Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi, 7(1), 9-15.

Koswandy, L. F., & Ramadhania, Z. M. (2016). Kandungan Senyawa Kimia dan Bioaktivitas dari Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Farmaka, 14(2), 63-78.

Manarisip, T., Yamlean, P. V., & Lolo, W. A. (2019). Formulasi Dan Uji Efektivitas Antibakteri Sediaan Gel Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kersen (Muntingia calabura L.) Sebagai Antiseptik Tangan. Pharmacon, 8(3), 580-590.

Kurniawan, M. F., Sugihartini, N., & Yuwono, T. (2019). Uji Transport Emulgel Minyak Atsiri Bunga Cengkeh dengan Penambahan Enhancer Propilen Glikol dan Asam Oleat. MPI (Media Pharmaceutica Indonesiana), 2(3), 113-121.

Lingga, A. R., Usman, P., & Evy, R. (2016). Uji Antibakteri Ekstrak Batang Kecombrang (Nicolia speciosa horan) Terhadap Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli. Jurnal Online Mahasiswa Fakultas Pertanian, 3(1), 1-15.

Mardiana, R. N., & Handayani, N. (2016). Antibacterial Activity Of The Sambiloto Leaf Extracts (Andrographis paniculata) To Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biofarmasi Journal of Natural Product Biochemistry, 14(1), 19-24.

Muharni, M., Fitrya, F., & Sofa, F. (2017). Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanol Tanaman Obat Suku Musi di Kabupaten Musi Banyuasin, Sumatera Selatan. Jurnal Kefarmasian Indonesia, 7(2), 127-135.

Nikam, S. (2017). Anti-Acne Gel Of Isotretinoin: Formulation And Evaluation. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 10(11), 257-266

Pratiwi, M. D., Nurahmanto, D., & Rosyidi, V. A. (2017). Optimasi Hidroksipropil Metilselulosa dan Mentol pada Sediaan Gel Dispersi Padat Ibuprofen–Polietilenglikol dengan Metode Desain Faktorial (Optimization of Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose and Menthol in Ibuprofen Gel Solid Dispersion Polyethyleneglycol). Pustaka Kesehatan, 5(3), 425-431.

Prihandani, S.S., Masniari, P., Susan, M.N., & Andriani, A. (2015). Uji Daya Antibakteri Bawang Putih (Allium Sativum L.) Terhadap Bakteri Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium dan Pseudomonas aeruginosa dalam Meningkatkan Keamanan Pangan, Informatika Pertanian, 2(1), 53 – 58.

Rachmalia, N., Mukhlishah, I., Sugihartini, N., & Yuwono, T. (2016). Daya Iritasi Dan Sifat Fisik Sediaan Salep Minyak Atsiri Bunga Cengkih (Syzigium aromaticum) Pada Basis Hidrokarbon. Majalah Farmaseutik, 12(1), 372-376.

Ramadhani, R. A., Riyadi, D. H. S., Triwibowo, B., & Kusumaningtyas, R. D. (2017). Review Pemanfaatan Design Expert untuk Optimasi Komposisi Campuran Minyak Nabati sebagai Bahan Baku Sintesis Biodiesel. Jurnal Teknik Kimia dan Lingkungan, 1(1), 11-16.

Rini, E.P., & Estu, R. N. (2018). Uji Daya Hambat Berbagai Merek Hand Sanitizer Gel Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus. Journal Of Pharmaceutical Science And Clinical Research, 3(1), 18-26

Rohmani, S., & Kuncoro, M. A. (2019). Uji Stabilitas dan Aktivitas Gel Handsanitizer Ekstrak Daun Kemangi. JPSCR: Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Research, 4(1), 16-28.

Septiani, S., Dewi, E. N., & Wijayanti, I. (2017). Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Lamun (Cymodocea rotundata) Terhadap Bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli (Antibacterial Activities of Seagrass Extracts (Cymodocea rotundata) Against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). Saintek Perikanan: Indonesian Journal of Fisheries Science and Technology, 13(1), 1-6.

Widyawati, L., Mustariani, B. A. A., & Purmafitriah, E. (2017). Formulasi Sediaan Gel Hand Sanitizer Ekstrak Etanol Daun Sirsak (Annona Muricata Linn) Sebagai Antibakteri Terhadap Staphylococcus aureus. Jurnal Farmasetis, 6(2), 47-57.

Wijaya, J. I. (2013). Formulasi Sediaan Gel Hand Sanitizer dengan Bahan Aktif Triklosan 1, 5% dan 2%. Calyptra, 2(1), 1-14.

Witri, P. S. (2017). Optimasi Peningkatan Kadar Patchouli Alcohol Dalam Minyak Atsiri Daun Nilam Menggunakan Metode Distilasi Vakum Dengan Variasi Suhu (Optimization of Increasing Patchouli Alcohol Content in Essential Oil of Patchouli Leaves Using Vacuum Distillation with Temperature Variations, Tesis, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang.

World Health Organization. (2005). Guidelines for Hand Sanitizer Formulation Design and Drug Delivery, Singapore : John Wiley and Sons.

Yusuf, A. L., Nurawaliah, E., & Harun, N. (2017). Uji Efektivitas Gel Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelor (Moringa Oleifera L.) Sebagai Antijamur Malassezia furfur. Kartika: Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi, 5(2), 62-67.

Published
2021-12-30
Section
Artikel
Abstract viewed = 147 times