• Didik Hasmono Universitas Airlangga
  • Agriawan Sudirman Faculty of pharmacy, Universitas Megarezky, Makassar
  • Muhammad Nashrullah Pharmacy Student, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya
  • Ruddy Hartono Clinical Pharmacist in Bhayangkara H.S. Samsoeri Mertojoso Hospital, Surabaya
  • Mohammad Subhan Pulmonologist in Bhayangkara H.S. Samsoeri Mertojoso Hospital, Surabaya


Lopinavir/Ritonavir is proposed as one of the therapy for Covid-19 patients based on the ability to reduce viral load. Bhayangkara Hospital Surabaya is one of the hospitals with quite a lot of Covid-19 patients in Surabaya. The research aimed to determine the effectiveness, outcome, and evaluate side effects of Lopinavir/Ritonavir in mild to moderate Covid-19 patients with comorbid hypertension and diabetes mellitus at Bhayangkara Hospital Surabaya. This was an observational study that collected data retrospectively at Bhayangkara Hospital Surabaya. Patient data had to meet the requirements for inclusion criteria, which were patients treated with Lopinavir/Ritonavir for a Covid-19 mild to moderate with comorbid hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Data were obtained from 18 patient medical records and then processed descriptively. The results showed that 7 patients (39%) received therapy A with 11 days of treatment, 4 patients received therapy B (22%) with 12 days of treatment, 1 patient (11%) received therapy C with 18 days of treatment, and 6 patients (28%) on D therapy with 14 days of treatment. Patients experiencing effects of gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea (22%), and diarrhea (11%). Lopinavir/Ritonavir in therapy A is the most effective when viewed from the length of treatment, which is 11 days. Therapy B, C, and D were considered effective as seen from the results of RT-PCR which showed negative results, namely 100%. Therapy D is the most effective chest X-ray repair, which is 50%. Side effects of Lopinavir/Ritonavir were gastrointestinal disturbances, namely nausea (22%), and diarrhea (11%), while hepatotoxicity was not found.


Download data is not yet available.


Bonanad, C., García-Blas, S., Tarazona-Santabalbina, F., Sanchis, J., Bertomeu-González, V., Fácila, L., Ariza, A., Núñez, J., & Cordero, A. (2020). The Effect of Age on Mortality in Patients With COVID-19: A Meta-Analysis With 611,583 Subjects. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 21(7), 915–918.

Brayfield, A. (2014). Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference 38th Edition Volume A. Pharmaceutical Press.

Burhan, E., Dwi Susanto, A., Isbaniah, F., Aman Nasution, S., Ginanjar, E., Wicaksono Pitoyo, C., Susilo, A., Firdaus, I., Santoso, A., Arifa Juzar, D., Kamsul Arif, S., Lolong Wulung, N. G., Muchtar, F., Pulungan, A. B., Ambara Sjakti, H., Prawira, Y., Dwi Putri, N., Adityaningsih, D., Fahrial Syam, A., … Mayung Sambo, C. (2020). PEDOMAN TATALAKSANA COVID-19.

Cao, B., Wang, Y., Wen, D., Liu, W., Wang, J., Fan, G., Ruan, L., Song, B., Cai, Y., Wei, M., Li, X., Xia, J., Chen, N., Xiang, J., Yu, T., Bai, T., Xie, X., Zhang, L., Li, C., … Wang, C. (2020). A Trial of Lopinavir–Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(19), 1787–1799.

CDC. (2020). People with Certain Medical Conditions | CDC.

Gao, C., Cai, Y., Zhang, K., Zhou, L., Zhang, Y., Zhang, X., Zhang, X., Li, Q., Li, W., Yang, S., Zhao, X., Zhao, Y., Wang, H., Liu, Y., Yin, Z., Zhang, R., Wang, R., Yang, M., Hui, C., … Li, F. (2020). Association of hypertension and antihypertensive treatment with COVID-19 mortality: a retrospective observational study. European Heart Journal, 41(22), 2058–2066.

Gebhard, C., Regitz-Zagrosek, V., Neuhauser, H. K., Morgan, R., & Klein, S. L. (2020). Impact of sex and gender on COVID-19 outcomes in Europe. Biology of Sex Differences, 11(1).

Horby, P. W., Mafham, M., Bell, J. L., Linsell, L., Staplin, N., Emberson, J., Palfreeman, A., Raw, J., Elmahi, E., Prudon, B., Green, C., Carley, S., Chadwick, D., Davies, M., Wise, M. P., Baillie, J. K., Chappell, L. C., Faust, S. N., Jaki, T., … Landray, M. J. (2020). Lopinavir–ritonavir in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial. The Lancet, 396(10259), 1345–1352.

Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, G., Xu, J., Gu, X., Cheng, Z., Yu, T., Xia, J., Wei, Y., Wu, W., Xie, X., Yin, W., Li, H., Liu, M., … Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395(10223), 497–506.

Instiaty, Sri Darmayani, I. G. A. A. P., Marzuki, J. E., Angelia, F., William, Siane, A., Sary, L. D., Yohanes, L., Widyastuti, R., Nova, R., Simorangkir, D. S., Lonah, Safitri, Y., Aliska, G., & Gayatri, A. (2020). Antiviral treatment of covid-19: A clinical pharmacology narrative review. Medical Journal of Indonesia, 29(3), 332–345.

Leung, J. M., Yang, C. X., Tam, A., Shaipanich, T., Hackett, T. L., Singhera, G. K., Dorscheid, D. R., & Sin, D. D. (2020). ACE-2 expression in the small airway epithelia of smokers and COPD patients: Implications for COVID-19. European Respiratory Journal, 55(5).

Levy, C., Lassailly, G., Parmentier, E., Duburcq, T., Mathurin, P., & Poissy, J. (2020). Caution With the Use of Lopinavir/Ritonavir in Severely Ill Patients for the Treatment of SARS-CoV-2: A Report of Severe Jaundice. The American College of Gastroenterology.

Lim, J., Jeon, S., Shin, H. Y., Kim, M. J., Seong, Y. M., Lee, W. J., Choe, K. W., Kang, Y. M., Lee, B., & Park, S. J. (2020). Case of the Index Patient Who Caused Tertiary Transmission of COVID-19 Infection in Korea: the Application of Lopinavir/Ritonavir for the Treatment of COVID-19 Infected Pneumonia Monitored by Quantitative RT-PCR. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 35(6).

Palmieri, L., Palmer, K., Lo Noce, C., Meli, P., Giuliano, M., Floridia, M., Tamburo de Bella, M., Piccioli, A., Brusaferro, S., Onder, G., Andrianou, X., Barbariol, P., Bella, A., Bellino, S., Benelli, E., Bertinato, L., Boros, S., Brambilla, G., Calcagnini, G., … Zona, A. (2021). Differences in the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients who died in hospital during different phases of the pandemic: national data from Italy. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 33(1), 193–199.

Scavone, C., Brusco, S., Bertini, M., Sportiello, L., Rafaniello, | Concetta, Zoccoli, A., Liberato Berrino, |, Racagni, G., Rossi, F., & Capuano, A. (2020). Current pharmacological treatments for COVID-19: What’s next? British Pharmacological Society.

Shereen, M. A., Khan, S., Kazmi, A., Bashir, N., & Siddique, R. (2020). COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. Journal of Advanced Research, 24, 91–98.

Umakanthan, S., Sahu, P., Ranade, A. V., Bukelo, M. M., Rao, J. S., Abrahao-Machado, L. F., Dahal, S., Kumar, H., & Kv, D. (2020). Origin, transmission, diagnosis and management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Postgraduate Medical Journal, 96(1142), 753–758.

WHO. (2020). WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard | WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard With Vaccination Data.

Zhou, P., Yang, X. Lou, Wang, X. G., Hu, B., Zhang, L., Zhang, W., Si, H. R., Zhu, Y., Li, B., Huang, C. L., Chen, H. D., Chen, J., Luo, Y., Guo, H., Jiang, R. Di, Liu, M. Q., Chen, Y., Shen, X. R., Wang, X., … Shi, Z. L. (2020). A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature, 579(7798), 270–273.

Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., Song, J., Zhao, X., Huang, B., Shi, W., Lu, R., Niu, P., Zhan, F., Ma, X., Wang, D., Xu, W., Wu, G., Gao, G. F., & Tan, W. (2020). A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(8), 727–733.

Abstract viewed = 69 times