Quantitative Analysis of Floristic Composition, Biological Spectrum and Leaf Spectrum of a Sacred Grove in Jhargram District, West Bengal, India

Uday Kumar Sen, Ram Kumar Bhakat

Abstract


Sacred Groves are tracts of virgin forests, left untouched and protected by local people, because of culture and religious beliefs. These tracts are remnants of the once-dominant flora, reservoirs of the rich biodiversity, and the last refuge for preserving the rich indigenous culture and traditions. For these reasons, the biological and leaf spectra, as well as the conservation status of the current sacred grove vegetation, Maa Mongalmoyee Than (MMT) in Jhargram district of West Bengal, India, have been studied. Data were collected during different seasons. The floristic list is taxonomically arranged based on clade, order, and family. In addition, photographs of some common, locally uncommon, endemic and valuable plant species within the sacred grove were taken. The herbarium sheets were then described by matching properly annotated materials available at the Herbarium Section of Vidyasagar University as well as the Botanical Survey of India. The results of floristic studies showed 217 MMT's angiosperm species, belonging to 196 genera, distributed under 59 families of 27 orders. Furthermore, Poales (13.82%) and Fabaceae (12.44%) are the dominant order and family, respectively, in terms of species population. Meanwhile, the biological spectrum showed the grove enjoys a "thero-chamaephyte" phytoclimate form, as well as a comparatively undisturbed status, being a sacred grove. Also, the preservation of germplasm within the grove is based on traditional belief in the social system.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbas AM, Al-Kahtani MA, Alfaifi MY, Elbehairi SEI, Badry MO. 2020. Floristic diversity and phytogeography of Jabal Fayfa: A subtropical dry zone, South-West Saudi Arabia. Diversity. vol 12(9): 1–20. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/d12090345.

Al-Yemeni M, Sher H. 2010. Biological spectrum with some other ecological attributes of the flora and vegetation of the Asir Mountain of South West, Saudi Arabia. African Journal of Biotechnology. vol 9(34): 5550–5559.

Amjad MS, Arshad M, Page S, Qureshi R, Mirza SN. 2017. Floristic composition, biological spectrum and phenological pattern of vegetation in the subtropical forest of Kotli District, AJK, Pakistan. Pure and Applied Biology (PAB). vol 6(2): 426–447. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.19045/bspab.2017.60043.

Anderson T. 1862. Letter from Thomas Anderson to Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker. Richmond: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. p 6. https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.visual.kdcas6139.

Asif M, Iqbal Z, Alam J, Majid A, Ijaz F, Ali N, Rahman IU, Hussain S, Khan A, Qadir G. 2020. Floristic inventory and biological spectra of Balakot, District Mansehra, Pakistan. Acta Ecologica Sinica. vol 40(3): 197–203. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2019.05.009.

Badshah L, Hussain F, Sher Z. 2016. Floristic inventory, ecological characteristics and biological spectrum of plants of Parachinar, Kurram agency, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany. vol 48(4): 1547–1558.

Berkes F. 2017. Sacred ecology. 4th ed. New York: Routledge. p 394. doi: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315114644.

Bhagwat SA, Rutte C. 2006. Sacred groves: Potential for biodiversity management. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. vol 4(10): 519–524.

Chase MW, Christenhusz MJM, Fay MF, Byng JW, Judd WS, Soltis DE, Mabberley DJ, Sennikov AN, Soltis PS, Stevens PF. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of Lineanean Society. vol 181: 1–20. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385.

Datta SC, Majumdar NC. 1966. Flora of Calcutta and vicinity. Bulletin of Botanical Society of Bengal. vol 20: 6–120.

de Paula LFA, Mota NFO, Viana PL, Stehmann JR. 2017. Floristic and ecological characterization of habitat types on an inselberg in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica. vol 31(2): 199–211. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-33062016abb0409.

Farooq M, Anjum W, Hussain M, Saqib Z, Khan KR, Shah AH, Gul S, Jabeen S. 2019. Forest situation analysis and future forecasting of famous Upper Tanawal forests ecosystems on western banks of lesser Himalaya. Acta Ecologica Sinica. vol 39(1): 9–13. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2018.07.003.

Gastauer M, Neto M, Alves JA. 2017. Updated angiosperm family tree for analyzing phylogenetic diversity and community structure. Acta Botanica Brasilica. vol 31(2): 191–198. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-33062016abb0306.

Ghildiyal JC, Barthwal N, Khantwal A. 2016. Life-forms and biological spectrum of Deeva Ka Daanda a sacred grove in Garhwal Himalaya. Indian Forester. vol 142(2): 167–178.

Gnanasekaran G, Nehru P, Narasimhan D. 2012. Angiosperms of Sendirakillai sacred grove (SSG), Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Check List. vol 8(1): 113–129. doi: https://doi.org/10.15560/8.1.113.

Haines HH. 1926. The Botany of Bihar and Orissa: an account of all the known indigenous plants of the province and of the most important or most commonly cultivated exotic ones. Nature. vol 117: 225–226. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/117225b0.

Haq SM, Malik AH, Khuroo AA, Rashid I. 2018. Floristic composition and biological spectrum of Keran-a remote valley of northwestern Himalaya. Acta Ecologica Sinica. vol 39(5): 372–379. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2018.12.001.

Hasnat GNT, Hossain MK. 2020. Global overview of tropical dry forests. In: Bhadouria R, Tripathi S, Srivastava P, Singh P (eds). Handbook of research on the conservation and restoration of tropical dry forests. Pennsylvania: IGI Global. pp 1–23.

Hooker JD. 1875. The flora of British India. Nature. vol 12: 3–5. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/012003a0.

Hughes JD, Chandran MDS. 1998. Sacred groves around the earth: An overview. In: Ramakrishnan PS, Saxena KG, Chandrashekara UM (eds). Conserving the sacred for biodiversity management. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. pp 69–86.

Jain SK, Rao RR. 2016. A Handbook of field and herbarium methods. New Delhi: Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers. pp 1–157.

Kent EF. 2013. Sacred groves and local gods: religion and environmentalism in South India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Khan ML, Khumbongmayum AD, Tripathi RS. 2008. The sacred groves and their significance in conserving biodiversity: An overview. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. vol 34(3): 277–291.

Khan W, Khan SM, Ahmad H, Alqarawi AA, Shah GM, Hussain M, Abd-Allah EF. 2018. Life forms, leaf size spectrum, regeneration capacity and diversity of plant species grown in the Thandiani forests, district Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Saudi Journal of Biological Science. vol 25(1): 94–100. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.11.009.

Mitra JN. 1958 Flowering Plants of Eastern India: Monocotyledons, Volume 1. Kolkata: The World Press Private Ltd. p 388.

Muller-Dombois D, Ellenberg H. 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. pp 10–22.

Nazir A, Malik ZH. 2006. Life form and index of similarity of plant communities recorded at Sarsawa Hill District Kotri. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. vol 17(1): 27–33.

Paria N. 2005. Medicinal plant resources of south West Bengal (Vol. 1). Kolkata: Research Wing, Directorate of Forests in collaboration with Department of Environment, Government of West Bengal. pp 1–198.

Paria ND. 2010. Medicinal plant resources of south West Bengal Vol II. Kolkata: Research Wing, Directorate of Forests, Government of West Bengal, in collaboration with Department of Environment, Government of West Bengal. pp 1–124.

Pérez-Luque AJ, Bonet FJ, Pérez-Pérez R, Aspizua R, Lorite J, Zamora R. 2014. Sinfonevada: dataset of floristic diversity in Sierra Nevada forests (SE Spain). PhytoKeys. vol 35: 1-15. doi: https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.35.6363.

Prain D. 1903. Bengal plants vol. 2. Kolkata: Botanical Survey of India. doi: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.50150.

Rath S, Ormsby AA. 2020. Conservation through Traditional Knowledge: A Review of Research on the Sacred Groves of Odisha, India. Human Ecology. vol 48(4): 455–463. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-020-00173-1.

Raunkiaer C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. pp 1–632.

Reddy CS. 2008. Catalogue of invasive alien flora of India. Life Science Journal. vol 5(2): 85–87.

Saha D, Ved D, Ravikumar K, Haridasan K. 2015. Cayratia pedata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T50126571A50131290. https://www.iucnredlist.org/. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T50126571A50131290.en.

Sakschewski B, von Bloh W, Boit A, Rammig A, Kattge J, Poorter L, Peñuelas J, Thonicke K. 2015. Leaf and stem economics spectra drive diversity of functional plant traits in a dynamic global vegetation model. Global Change Biology. vol 21(7): 2711–2725. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12870.

Sen UK. 2018. Assessing the social, ecological and economic impact on conservation activities within human-modified landscapes: A case study in Jhargram District of West Bengal, India. International Journal of Conservation Science. vol 9(2): 319–336.

Sen UK, Bhakat RK. 2019. Floristic composition, biological spectrum and conservation status of a sacred grove from Jhargram district, West Bengal, India. Indian Forester. vol 142(2): 161–172.

Sharma J, Raina AK. 2017. Lifeform classification and biological spectrum of Nandini wildlife sanctuary, Jammu, J & K, India. Environmental Conservation. vol 18(1&2): 231–237. doi: https://doi.org/10.36953/ECJ.2017.181231.

Sher Z, Khan ZU. 2007. Floristic composition, life form and leaf spectrum of the vegetation of Chagharzai valley, district Buner. Pakistan Journal of Plant Science. vol 13(1): 57–66.

Verschuuren B, Wild R, Oviedo G, Mcneely J (eds). 2012. Sacred natural sites: Conserving nature and culture. London: Earthscan. p 300.

WBPSPM. 2011. District human development report: Paschim Medinipur. Kolkata: Department of Planning & Statistics, Government of West Bengal. pp 1–283. http://www.wbpspm.gov.in/.

WCVP. 2020. World checklist of vascular plants, version 2.0. Richmond: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://wcvp.science.kew.org/.

Weber VS, Araus JL, Cairns JE, Sanchez C, Melchinger AE, Orsini E. 2012. Prediction of grain yield using reflectance spectra of canopy and leaves in maize plants grown under different water regimes. Field Crops Research. vol 128: 82–90. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2011.12.016.

Xu X, Zhang H, Xie T, Yue J, Zhao L, Tian Y. 2018. Geographical patterns of Raunkiaerian life-form spectrum in China. Pakistan Journal of Botany. vol 50(4): 1509-1516.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24252/bio.v8i2.16407

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Uday Kumar Sen, Ram Kumar Bhakat

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi is Indexed by: 

                   

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi

pISSN 2302-1616
eISSN 2580-2909

Web Analytics Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

OFFICIAL ADDRESS
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin Makassar
Jl. H.M. Yasin Limpo No. 36 Samata, Gowa, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. 92113

Email: biogenesis@uin-alauddin.ac.id
Phone: +6285242001984