SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE
AbstractThis article tries to answer some of the following questions : Why is it that some individuals are more successful than others in mastery of a second language? Why does one person seem to learn faster than another even if both are in the same situation? Or why does a person become more proficient in some parts of the language system (i.e., oral production and aural comprehension) than in other parts (i.e., written production and reading comprehension)? These are questions that linguists and language teachers have been asking for years. Recently several models of the second language acquisition process have been developed in an attempt to explain the interaction of variables which affect second language acquisition and the cognitive strategies that determine the form and course of acquisition. Because second language (L2) acquisition is a very complex process, no one model yet captures all of its facets. The purpose of this paper is to survey some of the current research and to review several models of L2 acquisition. The emphasis will be on the role of the learner rather than that of the teacher.
Asher, J.J. and B.S. Price. (1982). The Learning Strategy of the Total Physical Response: Some Age Differences. In Child-Adult Differences in Second Language edited Acquisition. edited by M.H.Krashen, F.D. Scarcella, and M.H. Long. Roviley, Eass: Newbury House Publishers.
Bailey, N., C. Madden, S-D. Krashen (1978). Is there a 'Natural Sequence' in Adult second Language Learning? In Second Language Acouisition, edited by E.M. Hatch. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House Publishers.
Bialystok, E. (1979). Explicit and Implicit Judgments of L2 Grammaticality. Language Learninig. 29: 81-103.
Bialystok,E. (1978). Theoretical Model of Second Language Learning. Language Learning. 28: 69-83.
Brown, H.D. (1980). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Chun, J. (1980). A Survey of Research in 'Second Language Acquisition. The Modern Language Journal. 64. 287-296.
Dulay, H.C. and M.K. Burt. (1978). Natural Sequences in Child Second Language Acquisition. In Hatch.
Dulay, H.C. and M.K. Burt. (1974). A New Perspective on the Creative Construction Process in Child. Language Learning. 24: 253 -277
Fathman, A. (1982). The Relationship 1fe-Lween Age and Second language Productive Ability. In Krashen et al.
Felix, S.W. (1981). 'The effect of formal instruction on Second Language Acquisition. Language Learning. 31: 87-112.
Filmore, L.W. (1982). Individual Differences in L2 Acquisition. A speech before TESOL convention. Honolulu.
Gardner, R.C. and W.E. Lambert. (1972). Attitudes and motivation Second language Learning. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House Publishers.
Goodenough, W.H. (1981). Culture, Language and Society. Menlo Park, California: The Benjamin/Cimmings Publishing Co.
Keesing, R.M. (1976). Learning a culture. From Cultural Anthropology: A Contemporary Perspective. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Krashen, S.D. (1982). Accounting for Child-Adult Differences in Second Language Rate and Attainment. In Krashen et, al.
Krashen, S.D. (1976). Formal and Informal Linguistic Environments in Language Acquisition and Language Learning. TESOL Quarterly. 10: 157-168
Krashen, S.D. (1979). A response to McLaughlin “The Monitor Model: some Methodological Considerations.Language Learning. 29: 151 – 167
Krashen, S.D. (1981). Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Lawler, J and Selinker. (1971). On Paradoxes, Rules and research in Second-Language Learning. Language Learning. 21: 27-43.
Lenneberg, E. (1967). Biological Foundations of Language. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
McLaughlin, B. (1978). The Monitor Model: Some methodological Considerations. Language Learning. 28: 309-332.
Munsell, P. and T.H. Cass. (1981). Monitoring the monitor: A Review of second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Language Learning. 31: 493 – 501.
Seliger, H.W. (1977). Does Practice make Perfect? A study of interaction Patterns and L2 competence. Language Learning. 27: 263 – 278
Selinker, L. M. Swain, and G. Dumas. (1975). The Interlanguage Hypothesis and Extended to Children. Language Learning. 25: 139 – 152
Schumann, J.H. (1975). Affective factors and the problem of Age in Second Language Acquisition. Language Learning. 25: 209 – 235
Schumann, J.H. (1976). Social Distance as an actor in Second Language Acquisition. Language Learning. 26: 135 – 143
Snow, C.E. and M. Hoefnagel-Hohle. (1982). The Critical Period for Y Language Acquisition: Evidence from Second language Learning. In Krashen et al.
Stevick, E. (1981). Learning a Foreign language: The Natural Ways. a speech before TESOL Convention, Detroit.
Taylor, B.P. (1974). Toward a Theory of Language Acquisition. Language Learning. 24: 23-35.
Tollefson, J.W. (1981). The Role of Language Planning in Second Language Acquisition. Language Learning. 31: 337 – 348
Wallace, A. C. (1973). Schools in Revolutionary and Conservative Societies. In Cultural Relevance and Social Issues. Edited by F. A. J. Ianni and E. Storey. Little, Brown, 7 Co.
Wolcott, H. F. (1982). The Anthropology of Learning. Anthropology and Education Quarterly. 13: 83-108.
Yorio, C. (1980). Models of Second Language Acquisition. A speech before TESOL Spain, summarized in TESOL Newsletter. 14: 33 -34.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access)