Enhancing the productivity performance of Cyprinus carpio L. by Manihot utilissima Pohl. leaves supplementation

  • Teuku Reza Efianda Politeknik Indonesia Venezuela
    (ID) http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2761-9033
  • Uci Elfana Sari Politeknik Indonesia Venezuela
  • Humeira Humeira Politeknik Indonesia Venezuela
  • Kiki Rishki Ananda Politeknik Indonesia Venezuela


Cyprinus carpio is an economically crucial freshwater commodity in Indonesia and across the globe. Fish demand has a rising trend, which not in line with productivity. Innovation and aspects of food safety are the primary keys to increasing productive capacity. Therefore, the utilization of Manihot utilissima leaves as an alternative to improve national fish's productivity rate is a worthy consideration. They have multiple nutrients, including protein and fat needed by C. carpio seeds. This study aims to determine the optimal dose of M. utilissima supplementation to increase the productivity of C. carpio seeds. The methodology consisted of four treatments (0.5 mL/250 g, 10 mL/250 g, 15 mL/250 g) with four replications for 21 days. The outcome showed that P4 treatment (15 mL) could increase the relative growth rate by 21.10%/day, and it decreased the feed conversion ratio by 0.84. However, there is no significant effect on the survival rate. The study concludes that P4 treatment (15 mL) has positively increased the relative growth rate of C. carpio, and decreased its feed conversion ratio.

Author Biography

Teuku Reza Efianda, Politeknik Indonesia Venezuela
Department Aquaculture


Azhari D, Tomasoa AM. 2018. Kajian Kualitas Air dan Pertumbuhan Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus) yang Dibudidayakan dengan Sistem Akuaponik. Akuatika Indonesia. vol 3(2): 84‒90. doi: https://doi.org/10.24198/jaki.v3i2.23392.

Belton B, van Asseldonk IJM, Thilsted SH. 2014. Faltering fisheries and ascendant aquaculture: Implications for food and nutrition security in Bangladesh. Food Policy. vol 44: 77-87. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2013.11.003.

Bhowmick B, Crumlish M. 2016. Aquaculture health management and biosecurity practises in South West of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine. vol 14(2): 263-269. doi: https://doi.org/10.3329/bjvm.v14i2.31407.

Cema G, Płaza E, Trela J, Surmacz-Górska J. 2011. Dissolved oxygen as a factor influencing nitrogen removal rates in a one-stage system with partial nitritation and Anammox process. Water science and technology. vol 64(5): 1009‒1015. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2011.449.

Citarasu T. 2010. Herbal biomedicines: a new opportunity for aquaculture industry. Aquaculture International. vol 18(3): 403‒414. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-009-9253-7.

Dani NP, Budiharjo A, Listyawati S. 2005. Komposisi pakan buatan untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan kandungan protein ikan tawes (Puntius javanicus Blkr.). Biosmart. vol 7(2): 83‒90.

Davidson J, Good C, Barrows FT, Welsh C, Kenney PB, Summerfelt ST. 2013. Comparing the effects of feeding a grain-or a fish meal-based diet on water quality, waste production, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within low exchange water recirculating aquaculture systems.

Aquacultural Engineering. vol 52: 45-57. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2012.08.001.

Ministry of Agriculture Republic Indonesia. 2015. Rencana Strategis Kementerian Pertanian Tahun 2015-2019. hal. 1-38. https://www.pertanian.go.id/.

Efianda TR, Wahjuningrum D, Tarman K, Yuhana M, Effendi I, Saputra F. 2018. Effects of feed supplementation of Nodulisporium sp. KT29 induced by Vibrio harveyi cells on production performance of pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei cultured under marine culture system. Pakistan Journal of Biotechnology. vol 15(1): 59‒65.

Ekasari J, Napitupulu JLF, Surawidjaja EH. 2016. Immunity and growth of freshwater prawn fed with dietary β-glucan supplementation. Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia. vol 15(1): 41‒48. doi: https://doi.org/10.19027/jai.15.41-48.

Estim A, Saufie S, Mustafa S. 2019. Water quality remediation using aquaponics sub-systems as biological and mechanical filters in aquaculture. Journal of Water Process Engineering. vol 30: 1-10. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2018.02.001.

Hai NV. 2015. The use of medicinal plants as immunostimulants in aquaculture: A review. Aquaculture. vol 446: 88-96. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.03.014.

Hasimuna OJ, Maulu S, Mphande J. 2020. Aquaculture Health Management Practices in Zambia: Status, Challenges and Proposed Biosecurity Measures. Journal of Aquaculture Research and Development. vol 11(3): 1-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.35248/2155-9546.19.10.584.

Iheukwumere FC, Ndubuisi EC, Mazi EA, Onyekwere MU. 2008. Performance, nutrient utilization and organ characteristics of broilers fed cassava leaf meal (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. vol 7(1): 13‒16.

Khairul K, Hasan U. 2018. Pemeliharaan Ikan Lontok (Ophiocara porocephala Valenciennes, 1837) Sebagai Upaya Konservasi Dengan Pemberian Pakan Udang Kecepe. Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi. vol 6(2): 80‒85. doi: https://doi.org/10.24252/bio.v6i2.4442.

Li J, Tan B, Mai K, Ai Q, Zhang W, Xu W, Liufu Z, Ma H. 2006. Comparative study between probiotic bacterium Arthrobacter XE-7 and chloramphenicol on protection of Penaeus chinensis post-larvae from pathogenic vibrios. Aquaculture. vol 253(1‒4): 140‒147. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.07.040.

National Standardization Agency of Indonesia. 2016. SNI 8296.4.2016 Ikan mas Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 - Bagian 4: Produksi Benih. Jakarta: National Standardization Agency of Indonesia. www.jdih.bsn.go.id.

Natrah FM, Bossier P, Sorgeloos P, Yusoff FM, Defoirdt T. 2014. Significance of microalgal–bacterial interactions for aquaculture. Reviews in Aquaculture. vol 6(1): 48-61. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12024.

Mente E, Karalazos V, Karapanagiotidis IT, Pita C. 2011. Nutrition in organic aquaculture: an inquiry and a discourse. Aquaculture Nutrition. vol 17(4): 798-817. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2095.2010.00846.x.

Munaeni W, Yuhana M, Setiawati M, Wahyudi AT. 2020. Effect in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei of Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb. Powder on immune genes expression and resistance against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection. Fish & Shellfish Immunology. vol 102: 218‒227. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.03.066.

Panda SK, Rath CC. 2012. Phytochemicals as natural antimicrobials: prospects and challenges. Bioactive phytochemicals: perspectives for modern medicine. vol 1: 329‒389.

Prianggara A, Mahasri G, Manan A. 2016. Hubungan antara kualitas air dengan prevalensi endoparasit pada saluran pencernaan ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus) di keramba jaring apung program urban farming di kota Surabaya. Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health. vol 5(3): 85‒93.

Rachmawati D, Samidjan I. 2013. Efektivitas substitusi tepung ikan dengan tepung maggot dalam pakan buatan terhadap pertumbuhan dan kelulushidupan ikan patin. Saintek Perikanan: Indonesian Journal of Fisheries Science and Technology. vol 9(1): 62‒67. doi: https://doi.org/10.14710/ijfst.9.1.62-67.

Ramadhani DE, Widanarni W, Sukenda S. 2019. Microencapsulation of probiotics and its applications with prebiotic in Pacific white shrimp larvae through Artemia sp. Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia. vol 18(2): 130‒140. doi: https://doi.org/10.19027/jai.18.2.130-140.

Rašković BS, Stanković MB, Marković ZZ, Poleksić VD. 2011. Histological methods in the assessment of different feed effects on liver and intestine of fish. Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Belgrade). vol 56(1): 87‒100. doi: https://doi.org/10.2298/JAS1101087R.

Rønnestad I, Yúfera M, Ueberschär B, Ribeiro L, Sæle Ø, Boglione C. 2013. Feeding behaviour and digestive physiology in larval fish: current knowledge, and gaps and bottlenecks in research. Reviews in Aquaculture. vol 5(1): S59-S98. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12010.

Rudi M, Sukenda S, Wahjuningrum D, Pasaribu W, Hidayatullah D. 2019. Seaweed extract of Gracilaria verrucosa as an antibacterial and treatment against Vibrio harveyi infection of Litopenaeus vannamei. Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia. vol 18(2): 120‒129. doi: https://doi.org/10.19027/jai.18.2.11-20.

Setiawati M, Sutajaya R, Suprayudi MA. 2008. Pengaruh perbedaan kadar protein dan rasio energi protein pakan terhadap kinerja pertumbuhan fingerlings ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio). Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia. vol 7(2): 171‒178.

Stentiford GD, Neil DM, Peeler EJ, Shields JD, Small HJ, Flegel TW, Vlak JM, Jones B, Morado F, Moss S, Lotz J, Bartholomay L, Behringer DC, Hauton C, Lightner DV. 2012. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors. Journal of invertebrate pathology. vol 110(2): 141-157. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2012.03.013.

Stentiford GD, Sritunyalucksana K, Flegel TW, Williams BA, Withyachumnarnkul B, Itsathitphaisarn O, Bass D. 2017. New paradigms to help solve the global aquaculture disease crisis. PLoS pathogens. vol 13(2): 1-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006160.

Syafar LA, Mahasri G, Rantam FA. 2017. Blood description, parasite investation and survival rate of carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is exposed by spore protein myxobolus koi on rearing pond as immunostimulan material. Jurnal Biosains Pascasarjana. vol 19(2): 158‒179. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/jbp.v19i2.2017.158-175.

Tallar RY, Suen JP. 2016. Aquaculture Water Quality Index: a low-cost index to accelerate aquaculture development in Indonesia. Aquaculture international. vol 24(1): 295‒312. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-015-9926-3.

Xie Z, Chen H, Zheng P, Zhang J, Cai J, Abbas G. 2013. Influence and mechanism of dissolved oxygen on the performance of Ammonia-Oxidation Microbial Fuel Cell. international journal of hydrogen energy. vol 38(25): 10607‒10615. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.06.056.

Yusuf M, Mahasri G, Mufasirin M. 2015. Analisis respons imun ikan koi (Cyprinus carpio Koi) yang divaksin dengan whole protein spora myxobolus koi sebagai kandidat vaksin myxobolusis. Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan dan Kelautan. vol 7(1): 71‒78.

Zhang SY, Li G, Wu HB, Liu XG, Yao YH, Tao L, Liu H. 2011. An integrated recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for land-based fish farming: The effects on water quality and fish production. Aquacultural Engineering. vol 45(3): 93-102. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2011.08.001.

Zhang Q, Yu H, Tong T, Tong W, Dong L, Xu M, Wang Z. 2014. Dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis and fructooligosaccharide enhance the growth, non-specific immunity of juvenile ovate pompano, Trachinotus ovatus and its disease resistance against Vibrio vulnificus. Fish & shellfish immunology. vol 38(1): 7‒14. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2014.02.008.

Research Articles
Abstract viewed = 548 times