Effect of biofertilizer and salinity stress on productivity and vitamin C levels of Amaranthus tricolor L.

  • Nadhifa Athaya Khairunnisa Jurusan Biologi, Fakultas Biologi, Universitas Gadjah Mada
    (ID)
  • Dwi Umi Siswanti Jurusan Biologi, Fakultas Biologi, Universitas Gadjah Mada
    (ID)

Abstract

Abiotic stress is one of the elements that affect plant crop output due to its productivity and environmental factors. Salinity as abiotic stressors can impair plant growth, becoming a concern in the agriculture field in recent years. Biofertilizers are reported to be capable of overcoming salinity stress. Hence, it contains microbial elements in it, play a role for the nitrogen cycle in soil, which can result in increased plant growth. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the effect of biofertilizer and NaCl as a salinity stress factor on the growth of Amaranthus tricolor L. The biofertilizer doses utilized in this study were 10 L/ha, 20 L/ha and 30 L /ha, each in combination with basic manure fertilizer. For the salinity factor, NaCl concentrations of 2500 ppm, 5000 ppm, 7500 ppm, and 10.000 ppm were employed. Environmental characteristics, plant height, number of leaves, root length, plant dry mass, chlorophyll and carotenoid content, as well as vitamin C, were all measured. The parameters were determined quantitatively. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were determined using a UV-vis spectrophotometer, while vitamin C levels were determined using iodometric titration. At a 95% level of confidence, the results were examined using the one-way ANOVA approach. The results indicate that a 30 L/ha dose of biofertilizer has an effect on the chlorophyll content and root length of plants, whereas a 10 L/ha dose has an effect on the carotenoid content. The highest amaranth growth was observed when 0 L/ha biofertilizer was combined with a 7500 ppm NaCl treatment, whereas the largest number of leaves was shown when 10 L/ha biofertilizer was combined with a 2500 ppm NaCl treatment. It could be concluded that while biofertilizer has no effect on plant growth parameters, it does increase plant productivity by raising chlorophyll and carotenoid levels.

References

Agil SH, Linda R, Rafdinal R. 2019. Pengaruh konsentrasi biourin kelinci terhadap pertumbuhan vegetatif bayam batik (Amaranthus tricolor L. var. Giti Merah). Protobiont. vol 8(2): 17–23. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.26418/protobiont.v8i2.32477.

Aly MM, El Sayed HEA, Jastaniah SD. 2012. Synergistic effect between Azotobacter vinelandii and Streptomyces sp. isolated from saline soil on seed germination and growth of wheat plant. Journal of American Science. vol 8(5): 667–676.

Andini R, Yoshida S, Yoshida Y, Ohsawa R. 2013. Amaranthus genetic resources in Indonesia: morphological and protein content assessment in comparison with worldwide amaranths. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. vol 60(7): 2115–2128. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-013-9979-y.

Arnon DI. 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts, polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology. vol 24(1): 1–15. doi: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.24.1.1.

Badan Pusat Statistik. 2020. Produksi tanaman sayuran 2020. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik Indonesia. https://www.bps.go.id/.

Basu A, Prasad P, Das SN, Kalam S, Sayyed RZ, Reddy MS, El Enshasy H. 2021. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) as green bioinoculants: recent developments, constraints, and prospects. Sustainability. vol 13(3): 1–20. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031140.

Bruinsma J. 1963. The quantitative analysis of chlorophylls a and b in plant extracts. Photochemistry and Photobiology. vol 2(2): 241–249. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.1963.tb08220.x.

Da Silva RT, De Oliveira AB, Lopes MDFDQ, Guimarães MDA, Dutra EAS. 2016. Physiological quality of sesame seeds produced from plants subjected to water stress. Revista Ciência Agronômica. vol 47: 643–648. doi: https://doi.org/10.5935/1806-6690.20160077.

Dewi P, Fariyanti A. 2015. Pendapatan usahatani bayam di Desa Ciaruteun Ilir Kecamatan Cibungbulang Kabupaten Bogor Jawa Barat. Forum Agribisnis. vol 5(2): 159–174.

Elpawati E, Dara SD, Dasumiati D. 2015. Optimalisasi penggunaan pupuk kompos dengan penambahan effective microorganism 10 (Em10) pada produktivitas tanaman jagung (Zea mays L.). Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi. vol 8(2): 77–87. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15408/kauniyah.v8i2.2693.

Gupta G, Parihar SS, Ahirwar NK, Snehi SK, Singh V. 2015. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): Current and future prospects for development of sustainable agriculture. Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology. vol 7(2): 96–102. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/1948-5948.1000188.

Hoang LH, De Guzman CC, Cadiz NM, Tran DH. 2020. Physiological and phytochemical responses of red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and green amaranth (Amaranthus dubius L.) to different salinity levels. Legume Research-An International Journal. vol 43(2): 206–211. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18805/LR-470.

Ibiene AA, Agogbua JU, Okonko IO, Nwachi GN. 2012. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) as biofertilizer: Effect on growth of Lycopersicum esculentus. Journal of American Science. vol 8(2): 318–324.

Jacobs MB. 2018. The chemical analysis of foods and food products (Classic reprint) paperback. London: Forgotten Books. p 566.

James RA, Blake C, Byrt CS, Munns R. 2011. Major genes for Na+ exclusion, Nax1 and Nax2 (wheat HKT1; 4 and HKT1; 5), decrease Na+ accumulation in bread wheat leaves under saline and waterlogged conditions. Journal of Experimental Botany. vol 62(8): 2939–2947. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/err003.

Jimoh MO, Afolayan AJ, Lewu FB. 2018. Suitability of Amaranthus species for alleviating human dietary deficiencies. South African Journal of Botany. vol 115: 65–73. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2018.01.004.

Jnawali AD, Ojha RB, Marahatta S. 2015. Role of Azotobacter in soil fertility and sustainability–A review. Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research. vol 2(6): 1–5. doi: https://doi.org/10.15406/apar.2015.02.00069.

Kalayu G. 2019. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms: promising approach as biofertilizers. International Journal of Agronomy. vol 2019: 1–8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4917256.

Kartikawati A, Trisilawati O, Darwati I. 2017. Pemanfaatan pupuk hayati (biofertilizer) pada tanaman rempah dan obat/Biofertilizer utilization on spices and medicinal plants. Perspektif. vol 16(1): 33–43. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v16n1.2017.33-43.

Kementerian Pertanian. 2020. Pacu volume ekspor, Kementan latih 32 eksportir benih. Jakarta: Kementerian Pertanian Republik Indonesia. https://www.pertanian.go.id/.

Khan MA, Asaf S, Khan AL, Jan R, Kang SM, Kim KM, Lee IJ. 2020. Thermotolerance effect of plant growth-promoting Bacillus cereus SA1 on soybean during heat stress. BMC Microbiology. vol 20(1): 1–4. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12866-020-01822-7.

Kumar R, Kumawat N, Sahu YK. 2017. Role of biofertilizers in agriculture. Popular Kheti. vol 5(4): 63–66.

Kurepin LV, Zaman M, Pharis RP. 2014. Phytohormonal basis for the plant growth promoting action of naturally occurring biostimulators. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. vol 94(9): 1715–1722. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6545.

Mondal MMA, Ahmed F, Nabi KME, Al Noor MM, Mondal MTR. 2019. Performance of organic manures on the growth and yield of red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) and soil properties. Research in Agriculture Livestock and Fisheries. vol 6(2): 263–269. doi: https://doi.org/10.3329/ralf.v6i2.43049.

Moran R, Porath D. 1980. Chlorophyll determination in intact tissues using N, N-dimethylformamide. Plant Physiology. vol 65(3): 478–479. doi: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.65.3.478.

Qin L, Guo S, Ai W, Tang Y, Cheng Q, Chen G. 2013. Effect of salt stress on growth and physiology in amaranth and lettuce: Implications for bioregenerative life support system. Advances in Space. vol 51(3): 476–482. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2012.09.025.

Rangkuti NPJ, Mukarlina M, Rahmawati R. 2017. Pertumbuhan bayam merah (Amaranthus tricolor L.) yang diberi pupuk kompos kotoran kambing dengan dekomposer Trichoderma harzianum. Protobiont. vol 6(2): 18–25. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.26418/protobiont.v6i2.20797.

Sarker U, Islam MT, Oba S. 2018. Salinity stress accelerates nutrients, dietary fiber, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in Amaranthus tricolor leaves. PLoS One. vol 13(11): 1–18. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206388.

Sarker U, Oba S. 2020. The response of salinity stress-induced A. tricolor to growth, anatomy, physiology, non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. Frontiers in Plant Science. vol 11: 1–14. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.3389%2Ffpls.2020.559876.

Shiyam JO, Binang WB. 2011. Effect of poultry manure and urea-n on flowering occurrence and leaf productivity of Amaranthus cruentus. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental management. vol 15(1): 13–15. doi: https://doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v15i1.65667.

Siswanti DU, Rachmawati D. 2013. Pertumbuhan tiga kultivar padi (Oryza sativa L.) terhadap aplikasi pupuk bio cair dan kondisi tanah pertanian pasca erupsi Merapi 2010. Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi. vol 1(2): 110–115. doi: https://doi.org/10.24252/bio.v1i2.456.

Siswanti DU. 2015. Pertanian organik terpadu di Desa Wukirsari, Sleman, Yogyakarta sebagai usaha pemulihan kesuburan lahan terimbas erupsi merapi 2010 dan pencapaian Desa Mandiri Sejahtera. Jurnal Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat (Indonesian Journal of Community Engagement). vol 1(1): 62–78. doi: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpkm.16954.

Siswanti DU, Khairunnisa NA. 2021. The effect of biofertilizer and salinity stress on Amaranthus tricolor L. growth and total leaf chlorophyll content. BIO Web of Conferences. vol 33: 1–8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1051/bioconf/20213302004.

Siswanti DU, Umah N. 2021. Effect of biofertilizer and salinity on growth and chlorophyll content of Amaranthus tricolor L. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. vol 662: 1–11. doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/662/1/012019.

Stetter MG, Schmid KJ. 2017. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships and genome size evolution of the Amaranthus genus using GBS indicates the ancestors of an ancient crop. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. vol 109: 80–92. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2016.12.029.

Tavakkoli E, Fatehi F, Coventry S, Rengasamy P, McDonald GK. 2011. Additive effects of Na+ and Cl– ions on barley growth under salinity stress. Journal of Experimental Botany. vol 62(6): 2189–2203. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erq422.

Published
2021-12-30
Section
Research Articles
Abstract viewed = 90 times