Chromosome Characterization of Festival Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa D. var. Festival) Result of Polyploidization

  • Ganies Riza Aristya Genetic Laboratory, Faculty Biology, University Gadjah Mada
  • Rezika Alyza Genetic Laboratory, Faculty Biology, University Gadjah Mada


Strawberry is fruit commodities which originating from the member of Rosaceae and has been widely cultivated in several countries of the world including Indonesia. One of the strawberry cultivars which consumed and cultivate in Indonesia is the strawberry Festival (Fragaria x ananassa D. var. Festival), which was developed in the area of Banyuroto, Magelang. In order to improve the quality and quantity of strawberry plants, polyploidization using colchicine has been employed in previous studies. The objectives of this research were study the chromosome character which include number, size, shape, and karyotype of normal strawberries and treatment strawberries with colchicine (0.05% 36 hours of root and leaf induction, 0.05% 24 hours of root and leaf induction, 0.05% 36 hours of leaf induction, 0.01% 36 hours of root and leaf induction). The results of this research shown that chromosome number difference and degree of ploidy between Fragaria x ananassa var Chandler in America with Fragaria x ananassa var. Festival in Indonesia due to natural mutation. While Festival strawberry control and treatment colchicine have same number chromosome is 2n=4x=28M and there are a difference long sleeve and short sleeve chromosome that may affect the content of chromosome expression and phenotype character are produced. The analysis of flow cytometry showed that treatment strawberry with colchicine has two peaks with intensity fluorescence equal to strawberry control so that it can be interpreted that the ploidy number of strawberries treatment with colchicine is tetraploid.


Aristya GR. 2014. Optimalisasi induksi poliploid pada tanaman stroberi (Fragaria Spp. “Festival” dan “Californica”). Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan. vol 6(10):77–91.

Aristya GR, Alyza R, Khoiroh R, and Daryono BS. 2015. Chromosome number and time period of mitotic cycle of festival and californica strawberry cultivar (Fragariax Ananassa and Fragaria Vesca). In: The 3rd International Conference on Biological Science. Yogyakarta: Fakultas Biologi, Universitas Gadjah Mada. pp. 476–479 doi:

Aristya GR, and Daryono BS. 2014. Karakter fenotipik tanaman stroberi festival (Fragaria X Ananassa D.) hasil induksi kolkisin pada konsentrasi 0,05% dan 0,01%. Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi. vol 2(2):70–78. doi:

Aversano R, Ercolano MR, Caruso I, Fasano C, Rosellini D, and Carputo D. 2012. Molecular tools for exploring polyploid genomes in plants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. vol 13(8):10316–10335. doi:

Caperta AD, Delgado M, Ressurreição F, Meister A, Jones RN, Viegas W, and Houben A. 2006. Colchicine-induced polyploidization depends on tubulin polymerization in c-metaphase cells. Protoplasma. vol 227(2–4):147–153. doi:

Cires E, Cuesta C, Casado MÁF, Nava HS, Vázquez VM, and Prieto JAF. 2011. Isolation of plant nuclei suitable for flow cytometry from species with extremely mucilaginous compounds: an example in the genus Viola L. (Violaceae). Anales Del

Jardín Botánico de Madrid. vol 68(2):139–154. doi:

Dhooghe E, Laere K Van, Eeckhaut T, Leus L, and Huylenbroeck J Van. 2011. Mitotic chromosome doubling of plant tissues in vitro. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC). vol 104(3):359–373. doi:

Dhooghe Emmy, Grunewald W, Leus L, and Labeke M-C Van. 2009. In vitro polyploidisation of helleborus species. Euphytica. vol 165(1):89–95. doi:

Doležel J, and Bartoš J. 2005. Plant DNA flow cytometry and estimation of nuclear genome size. Annals of Botany. vol 95(1):99–110. doi:

Eroğlu HE. 2015. Which chromosomes are subtelocentric or acrocentric? a new karyotype symmetry/asymmetry index. Caryologia. vol 68(3):239–245. doi:

Hanif Z, and Ashari H. 2012. Sebaran stroberi (fragaria x ananassa) di Indonesia. In: Prosiding Seminar Nasional Pekan Inovasi Teknologi Hortikultura Nasional. 5 Juli 2012. Kota Batu: Balai penelitian tanaman jeruk dan buah subtropika. pp. 87–95 doi:

Hummer KE, Bassil N, and Njuguna W. 2011. Fragaria. Wild crop relatives: genomic and breeding resources, temperate fruits. C. Kole. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. p. 17–44 doi:

Lavia GI, Ortiz AM, and Fernández A. 2009. Karyotypic studies in wild germplasm of Arachis (Leguminosae). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. vol 56(6):755–764. doi:

Levan A, Fredga K, and Sandberg A. 1964. Nomenclature for centromeric position on chromosomes. Hereditas. vol 52(1964):201–220.

Nathewet P, Yanagi T, Hummer KE, Iwatsubo Y, and Sone K. 2009. Karyotype analysis in wild diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid strawberries, Fragaria (Rosaceae). Cytologia. vol 74(3):355–364. doi:

Nosrati H, Price AH, Gerstberger P, and Wilcock CC. 2011. Identification of a natural allopentaploid hybrid fragaria (rosaceae), new to Europe. Journal of the Botanical Society of Britain & Ireland. vol 1(2):88–92. doi:

Ochatt SJ. 2008. Flow cytometry in plant breeding. Cytometry. vol 73A(7):581–598. doi:

Owen HR, and Miller AR. 1996. Haploid plant regeneration from anther cultures of three north american cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria X Ananassa Duch.). Plant Cell Reports. vol 15(22):905–909. doi:

Schepper S De, Leus L, Mertens M, Bockstaele E Van, Loose M De, Debergh P, and Heursel J. 2001. Flow cytometric analysis of ploidy in Rhododendron (Subgenus Tsutsusi). HortScience. vol 36(1):125–127. doi:

Scott DH. 1951. Cytological studies on polyploids derived from tetraploid Fragaria vesca and cultivated strawberries. Genetics. vol 36(4):311–331.

Suminah, Sutarno, and Setyawan D. 2002. Induksi poliploidi bawang merah (Allium Ascalonicum L.) dengan pemberian kolkisin. Biodiversitas. vol 3(1):174–180. doi:

Wang B, Ding Z, Liu W, Pan J, Li C, Ge S, and Zhang D. 2009. Polyploid evolution in oryza officinalis complex of the genus oryza. BMC Evolutionary Biology. vol 9(1):250. doi:

Research Articles
Abstract viewed = 811 times