The Editorial considers retracting a publication if:
- They have clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error).
- The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper crossreferencing, permission, or justification (i.e. cases of redundant publication).
- It constitutes plagiarism (high similarity with other published items).
- It reports unethical research.
The mechanism of retraction follows the Retraction Guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
Authors are not allowed to withdraw submitted manuscripts, because the withdrawals are a waste of valuable resources that editors and referees spent a great deal of time processing submitted manuscript, money, and works invested by the publisher.