Retraction Policy

The Editorial Board may consider the retraction of a publication under the following circumstances:

  1. If there is clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, whether due to misconduct (such as data fabrication) or an honest mistake (for instance, miscalculation or experimental error).

  2. When the findings have been previously published elsewhere without the appropriate cross-referencing, permission, or justification, which constitutes cases of redundant publication.

  3. In instances where the publication is found to be in violation of plagiarism guidelines, demonstrating a high degree of similarity with other previously published materials.

  4. If the publication reports research that is considered unethical.

The retraction process adheres to the Retraction Guidelines set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Authors are not permitted to withdraw a submitted manuscript. This policy is in place to prevent the wastage of valuable resources, including the considerable time, money, and effort invested by editors, referees, and the publisher in processing submitted manuscripts.