KETERKAITAN RUANG INTERAKSI ANAK BERKEBUTUHAN KHUSUS DENGAN KUALITAS HIDUP DI SEKOLAH LUAR BIASA

Syam Rachma Marcillia, Eko Widodo

Abstract


Abstrak_Interaksi sosial pada umumnya didefinisikan sebagai hubungan antara dua individu atau lebih yang diwujudkan dalam suatu aktivitas pada tempat tertentu. Anak Berkebutuhan Khusus (ABK) sebagai bagian yang tidak bisa dipisahkan dari kehidupan sosial pada praktiknya membutuhkan dukungan melalui interaksi sosial dan lingkungan yang kondusif sehingga dapat meningkatkan kualitas hidup mereka. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji keterkaitan ruang interaksi sosial ABK dan kualitas hidup di Sekolah Luar Biasa (SLB). Pengamatan behavior mapping dengan teknik place centered mapping diterapkan dalam penelitian ini untuk memperoleh data terkait karakter pengguna, setting fisik, dan pola aktivitas yang terjadi. Terkait penilaian kualitas hidup ABK, peneliti mengadaptasi instrumen Kidscreen-52 dengan mengambil aspek Physical dan Psychological Well-Being, Moods and Emotions, Autonomy, dan Social Support and Peers. Kelima aspek tersebut disusun ke dalam kuesioner, selanjutnya melibatkan 29 ABK dengan berbagai jenis ketunaan dan jenjang kelas sebagai responden. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa lingkungan SLB memiliki peran positif sebagai ruang interaksi sosial, selain mampu memenuhi kelima aspek kualitas hidup ABK tersebut di atas. Penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa interaksi sosial ABK juga dipengaruhi oleh jenis ketunaan dan jenjang kelas, selanjutnya akan berpengaruh pada preferensi setting fisik dan jenis aktivitas yang dilakukan.

Kata Kunci: Ruang Interaksi; Karakter Pengguna; Setting Fisik; Kualitas Hidup; Kidscreen-52.

 

 

Abstract_ Social interaction is generally defined as the relationship between two or more individuals which is manifested in an activity at a particular place. Special needs children as an inseparable part of social life in practice require support through social interactions and conducive environment to improve their life quality. This research examined the interrelationship of social interaction space for special needs children and their life quality at special needs school. Behaviour mapping observation using place centred mapping techniques was applied to obtain data related to user characters, physical settings, and patterns of activities that occur. Regarding the assessment of life quality, researchers adapted the Kidscreen-52 instrument by taking aspects of Physical and Psychological Well-Being, Moods and Emotions, Autonomy, and Social Support and Peers. These aspects were compiled into a questionnaire and then distributed to 29 special needs children as respondents. The results showed that the school environment has a positive role as a space for social interaction and to accomplish the five aspects of life quality of the special needs children. Also, it revealed that their social interactions were also influenced by the type of disability and grade level, which affected the physical setting preferences and the varieties of undertaken activities.

Keywords: Interaction Space; User’s Character; Physical Setting; Life Quality; Kidscreen-52.


Keywords


Interaction Space; User’s Character; Physical Setting; Life Quality; Kidscreen-52.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24252/nature.v7i1a1

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